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  • New member:

    Andrew Chen

    Radiology resident United States, New York


  • Sehrish Memon Interventional Radiology 11/08/2015

    Abstract Vascular closure devices are frequently used for hemostasis during endovascular procedures by employing sutures, plug devices (using collagen or hydrogel) or through the use of a metal cli...

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  • Elie Najem

    2018-11-12 03:05:02 Visible by anyone.

    Questions and Answers:


    1.      The most common site of intracranial calcifications in the pediatric population is:

    a.       Cerebellum

    b.      Periventricular region

    c.       Pineal gland

    d.      Thalamus

    e.       Falx cerebri


    Answer: c. In the pediatric population, they are typically seen in the pineal gland and choroid plexus. Pineal calcifications <1cm, appear as dots and tend to be benign in 40% of individuals less than 20 years old. Whereas pineal calcifications >1cm in patients younger than 9 years should be regarded as pathologic and warrant further investigation.


    2.      A blush-like pattern calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia in a child is typically seen in:

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Raine syndrome

    c.       Krabbe’s disease

    d.      Sturge-Weber  syndrome

    e.       Neurofibromatosis


    Answer: c. Krabbe’s disease is an autosomal recessive demyelinating disorder affecting infants due to galactocerebroside b-galactosidase deficiency leading to accumulation of abnormal lipids. A symmetrical blush-like pattern of calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia is characteristic.


    3.      A 3 day-old boy was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after an episode of tonic-clonic seizure. His mother denied prenatal care. Non-contrast CT was showed both sub-ependymal and periventricular calcifications with cerebral volume loss. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Congenital CMV

    c.       Congenital hypothyroidism

    d.      Neurofibromatois

    e.       Hypoglycemia-induced seizure


    Answer: b. Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Incidence is 0.2-2.4% of live births. Intracranial calcifications are seen in 77% of those with imaging abnormalities typically in the sub-ependymal and periventricular regions of the brain along with brain atrophy.


    4.      Among all the intra-axial brain tumors, which of the following is mostly associated with intracranial calcifications?

    a.       Oligodendroglioma

    b.      Pilocytic astrocytoma

    c.       Dysembryonic neuroectodermal tumors

    d.      Medulloblastoma

    e.       Metastasis


    Answer: a. Oligodendrogliomas exhibit the highest frequency of calcifications (up to 90%). Calcifications can be scattered dots or clumped together to form large nodules, located centrally or peripherally and frequently in the frontal lobes.


    5.      A 50-year-old female patient presented with dry coughfatigue, and shortness of breath. On physical exam she has tender reddish bumps on the skin. Review of the systems revealed seizures and depression. CXR showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes and CT scan of the brain showed small calcified masses in the leptomeninges and periventricular white matter. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Hypothyroidism

    b.      Hyperparathyroidism

    c.       Hemochromatosis

    d.      Chronic lead toxicity

    e.       Sarcoidosis


    Answer: e. Sarcoidosis affects many organs including the CNS, lungs and skin. On non-contrast CT scan of the brain, small calcified granulomas can be seen in the leptomeninges, periventricular white matter, pons, hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and optic chiasm with varying degrees of edema.


  • yudell edelstein

    2019-02-09 21:57:24 Visible by anyone.

    Comment my case

    Ruptured Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Appendix
    The uploaded images are not showing up

  • New member:


    Radiologist Australia, QLD


  • New member:

    Stephen Parada

    Non-Radiologist physician United States, GA


  • Muhammad Shoyab

    2018-08-01 06:29:29 Visible by anyone.
  • Joshua Ellis

    2019-07-09 16:38:32 Visible by anyone.
  • Renan Ibrahem Abdominal Imaging 02/27/2016

    Summary: A case report of a 72-year-old female patient presenting with right-sided abdominal pain and back pain, on whom initial abdominal ultrasound revealed a hepatic mass. With the aid of subseq...

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  • Sneha Harish C

    2019-09-01 05:20:47 Visible by anyone.

  • New member:

    Silvia Verna

    Radiology resident Italy, Tuscany


  • Holger Spittank Musculoskeletal Imaging 05/28/2016

    Background: Malsegmentation of the fourth occipital vertebra can result in various anomalies that are known as ‘manifestation of the proatlas’. The occurrence of a persistent proatlas with addit...

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  • New member:

    Patricia Chambers

    Other resident United States, us


  • New member:

    Jeff clegg



  • New member:

    Ahmed Farouk

    Radiologist Egypt, Cairo


  • amer ameli Abdominal Imaging 04/09/2015

    65 years old female with DM plus anorexia KUB done whats finding...

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  • Grace Chao Abdominal Imaging 05/16/2017

    Sleeve gastrectomy is a relatively newer bariatric surgical procedure and has become the most common of all bariatric surgeries performed. Complication rates reported with sleeve gastrectomies are rel...

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  • New member:

    Aditya Kekatpure

    Non-Radiologist physician India, Maharashtra


  • New member:

    Bryant Brown

    Radiology resident United States, AZ


  • New member:

    Justin Boe

    Radiologist United States, OK


  • ajmal mohamed Head and Neck 03/04/2015

    Foreign bodies are quite common in oral and maxillofacial region. Radiopaque objects like teeth, metals and gravels are easily detectable in the radiograph. But non radiopaque objects such as wood par...

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  • New member:

    Christina Oska

    Medical student United States, MI


  • New member:

    Conrad Jackson

    Radiology resident Australia,