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  • Elie Najem

    2018-11-12 03:05:02 Visible by anyone.

    Questions and Answers:

     

    1.      The most common site of intracranial calcifications in the pediatric population is:

    a.       Cerebellum

    b.      Periventricular region

    c.       Pineal gland

    d.      Thalamus

    e.       Falx cerebri

     

    Answer: c. In the pediatric population, they are typically seen in the pineal gland and choroid plexus. Pineal calcifications <1cm, appear as dots and tend to be benign in 40% of individuals less than 20 years old. Whereas pineal calcifications >1cm in patients younger than 9 years should be regarded as pathologic and warrant further investigation.

       

    2.      A blush-like pattern calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia in a child is typically seen in:

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Raine syndrome

    c.       Krabbe’s disease

    d.      Sturge-Weber  syndrome

    e.       Neurofibromatosis

     

    Answer: c. Krabbe’s disease is an autosomal recessive demyelinating disorder affecting infants due to galactocerebroside b-galactosidase deficiency leading to accumulation of abnormal lipids. A symmetrical blush-like pattern of calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia is characteristic.

     

    3.      A 3 day-old boy was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after an episode of tonic-clonic seizure. His mother denied prenatal care. Non-contrast CT was showed both sub-ependymal and periventricular calcifications with cerebral volume loss. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Congenital CMV

    c.       Congenital hypothyroidism

    d.      Neurofibromatois

    e.       Hypoglycemia-induced seizure

     

    Answer: b. Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Incidence is 0.2-2.4% of live births. Intracranial calcifications are seen in 77% of those with imaging abnormalities typically in the sub-ependymal and periventricular regions of the brain along with brain atrophy.

       

    4.      Among all the intra-axial brain tumors, which of the following is mostly associated with intracranial calcifications?

    a.       Oligodendroglioma

    b.      Pilocytic astrocytoma

    c.       Dysembryonic neuroectodermal tumors

    d.      Medulloblastoma

    e.       Metastasis

     

    Answer: a. Oligodendrogliomas exhibit the highest frequency of calcifications (up to 90%). Calcifications can be scattered dots or clumped together to form large nodules, located centrally or peripherally and frequently in the frontal lobes.

       

    5.      A 50-year-old female patient presented with dry coughfatigue, and shortness of breath. On physical exam she has tender reddish bumps on the skin. Review of the systems revealed seizures and depression. CXR showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes and CT scan of the brain showed small calcified masses in the leptomeninges and periventricular white matter. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Hypothyroidism

    b.      Hyperparathyroidism

    c.       Hemochromatosis

    d.      Chronic lead toxicity

    e.       Sarcoidosis

     

    Answer: e. Sarcoidosis affects many organs including the CNS, lungs and skin. On non-contrast CT scan of the brain, small calcified granulomas can be seen in the leptomeninges, periventricular white matter, pons, hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and optic chiasm with varying degrees of edema.

     

  • New member:

    Hedieh Khalatbari

    Radiologist United States, Washington

    Board certified in radiology and nuclear medicine with subspecialty training in Neuroradiology, Pediatric Radiology, and PET-CT....

  • Roland Talanow

    2019-07-12 17:23:50 Visible by anyone.

    Take a vote! Help us enhance the interpretability of A.I. systems in Radiology:

     

    Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) systems are achieving remarkable performances in radiology, but at the cost of increased complexity. Hence, they become less interpretable.


    As these systems are pervasively being introduced to radiology, we believe it becomes imperative to develop dedicated methodologies to enhance the interpretability of A.I. technologies.


    Interpretability methods could help physicians to decide whether they should follow/trust a prediction from an A.I. system. Ultimately, interpretability of A.I. systems is closely linked to safety in healthcare.


    The following poll is meant to collect radiologists’ opinions about methods to enhance the interpretability of A.I. systems developed to assist radiologists.


    https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/interpretableAI


    We thank you in advance for taking 5 minutes to answer this poll. The results of the poll are going to be made publicly available and part of a related publication where this topic will be discussed.


    On behalf of the organisers and supporters of iMIMIC Workshop (Interpretability of Machine Intelligence in Medical Image Computing) 

  • New member:

    Niharika Shahi

    Medical student Canada,

    ...

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    Paul Li

    Medical student Canada,

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  • Kelsey Bourm Nuclear Medicine 06/15/2015

    Our patient is an 8-year-old female with a past medical history of cerebral palsy and ventriculoperitoneal shunt who presented with a 2-day history of nonbilious emesis, fever, and cephalgia. The CT h...

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  • New member:

    Filippo Pesapane

    Radiology resident United Kingdom,

    Radiologist with focus on breast and urogenital imaging. Interpreted all breast imaging studies (mammography, US, CEUS, ABUS, MRI), pelvic MRI, whole-body MRI. Performed all breast procedures (stereot...

  • Eslam Youssef

    2018-07-13 23:01:37 Visible by anyone.
  • New member:

    祥宇 仇

    Medical student China,

    ...

  • aliza decruz

    2019-07-08 02:43:17 Visible by anyone.

    We are a dedicated, hard working and professional SEO company In USA, serving thousands of clients of various categories. We have the capability, rich experience and complete knowledge of understanding your business environment and apply the right solutions and professional SEO services to bring your business website in the top positions in the search engine results.

  • Jeremy Lam

    2018-08-15 08:11:45 Visible by anyone.
  • New member:

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    Victoria Wapf

    Other resident Switzerland,

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    Shamaita Majumdar

    Medical student United States, Missouri

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  • Radiologist United States,

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    Radiology resident Portugal,

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    Olivia Francies

    Radiology resident United Kingdom,

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  • New member:

    Richa Verma

    Radiologist India, HIMACHAL PRADESH

    learning and enthusiastic radiologist...

  • Alysse Sever Neuroradiology 10/06/2015

    Case Report Our patient, a 72 year old female with a past history of a right frontoparietal stroke and residual left hemiparesis, presented to the emergency room with a one day history of headache an...

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  • New member:

    Bobbie Goodman

    ,

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  • Marci Handler Abdominal Imaging 09/10/2016

    Primary appendiceal adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy, which comprises less than 0.5% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms. Most commonly, these tumors present as acute appendicitis or as a right lower...

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  • Roland Talanow Neuroradiology 02/12/2015

    There is approximately 1.5 x 1.1 x 2.0 cm cystic lesion located within the mesial subcortical white matter of the posterior left occipitoparietal lobe. Cystic area demonstrates restricted diffusion. ...

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  • New member:

    babar sanaullah

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  • New member:

    Tafseer Ahmed

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  • Ahmed Abdel Aal Interventional Radiology 01/19/2015

    We report a case of an indwelling inferior vena cava (IVC) filter that penetrated the IVC wall after Whipple’s pancreatico-duodenectomy procedure performed in a patient with ampullary carcinoma, res...

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