Clinical history: A 42yr nulliparous female with Chronic Kidney Disease presented with acute urinary retention.She also had constipation since 1 month and irregular per-vaginal bleeding since 3 months...See details
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is considered a simple and safe modality for treatment of hepatic lesions. The benefits related to RFA include low morbidity, performance on an outpatient basis and the p...See details
A coronary cameral fistula (CCF) is an abnormal communication between a coronary artery and any cardiac chamber . CCF is an uncommon disorder with an incidence of 0.1% in patients undergoing coronary ...See details
Questions and Answers:
1. The most common site of intracranial calcifications in the pediatric population is:
b. Periventricular region
c. Pineal gland
e. Falx cerebri
Answer: c. In the pediatric population, they are typically seen in the pineal gland and choroid plexus. Pineal calcifications <1cm, appear as dots and tend to be benign in 40% of individuals less than 20 years old. Whereas pineal calcifications >1cm in patients younger than 9 years should be regarded as pathologic and warrant further investigation.
2. A blush-like pattern calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia in a child is typically seen in:
a. Tuberous sclerosis
b. Raine syndrome
c. Krabbe’s disease
d. Sturge-Weber syndrome
Answer: c. Krabbe’s disease is an autosomal recessive demyelinating disorder affecting infants due to galactocerebroside b-galactosidase deficiency leading to accumulation of abnormal lipids. A symmetrical blush-like pattern of calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia is characteristic.
3. A 3 day-old boy was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after an episode of tonic-clonic seizure. His mother denied prenatal care. Non-contrast CT was showed both sub-ependymal and periventricular calcifications with cerebral volume loss. What is the most likely diagnosis?
a. Tuberous sclerosis
b. Congenital CMV
c. Congenital hypothyroidism
e. Hypoglycemia-induced seizure
Answer: b. Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Incidence is 0.2-2.4% of live births. Intracranial calcifications are seen in 77% of those with imaging abnormalities typically in the sub-ependymal and periventricular regions of the brain along with brain atrophy.
4. Among all the intra-axial brain tumors, which of the following is mostly associated with intracranial calcifications?
b. Pilocytic astrocytoma
c. Dysembryonic neuroectodermal tumors
Answer: a. Oligodendrogliomas exhibit the highest frequency of calcifications (up to 90%). Calcifications can be scattered dots or clumped together to form large nodules, located centrally or peripherally and frequently in the frontal lobes.
5. A 50-year-old female patient presented with dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. On physical exam she has tender reddish bumps on the skin. Review of the systems revealed seizures and depression. CXR showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes and CT scan of the brain showed small calcified masses in the leptomeninges and periventricular white matter. What is the most likely diagnosis?
d. Chronic lead toxicity
Answer: e. Sarcoidosis affects many organs including the CNS, lungs and skin. On non-contrast CT scan of the brain, small calcified granulomas can be seen in the leptomeninges, periventricular white matter, pons, hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and optic chiasm with varying degrees of edema.
A 4 year old male presented to the pediatric endocrinologist with global developmental delay and growth retardation. The patient’s prenatal and neonatal records were significant for a maternal histo...See details
Resident, radiology, India...
A 27-year-old man was admitted in the nephrology department with complaints of headache, loss of appetite and decreased urination for two months. Clinical examination revealed the following: blood ure...See details
Radiology resident at University of Illinois at Chicago from 2015 to 2019. Currently a Neuroradiology fellow at University of Maryland Medical Center....
ABSTRACT: Endometriomas can occur after any surgery where there is endometrial manipulation, and there are a number of reports of endometriomas developing in the abdominal wall at the site of the pfan...See details
In the evaluation of carcinoma esophagus, positron emission tomography-computed tomography/Computed tomography is done for baseline staging of Carcinoma esophagus. In local regionally advanced cases n...See details
Case of CPAM who presented with respiratory distress and CT and chest radiograph features suggestive of congenital lobar overinflation (CLO)....See details
A 24-year-old male underwent a laparoscopic appendectomy for a perforated appendix. Three months later he returned with sharp 5/10 pain in the right upper quadrant, a high-grade fever, and positive Mu...See details