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  • Elie Najem

    2018-11-12 03:05:02 Visible by anyone.

    Questions and Answers:

     

    1.      The most common site of intracranial calcifications in the pediatric population is:

    a.       Cerebellum

    b.      Periventricular region

    c.       Pineal gland

    d.      Thalamus

    e.       Falx cerebri

     

    Answer: c. In the pediatric population, they are typically seen in the pineal gland and choroid plexus. Pineal calcifications <1cm, appear as dots and tend to be benign in 40% of individuals less than 20 years old. Whereas pineal calcifications >1cm in patients younger than 9 years should be regarded as pathologic and warrant further investigation.

       

    2.      A blush-like pattern calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia in a child is typically seen in:

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Raine syndrome

    c.       Krabbe’s disease

    d.      Sturge-Weber  syndrome

    e.       Neurofibromatosis

     

    Answer: c. Krabbe’s disease is an autosomal recessive demyelinating disorder affecting infants due to galactocerebroside b-galactosidase deficiency leading to accumulation of abnormal lipids. A symmetrical blush-like pattern of calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia is characteristic.

     

    3.      A 3 day-old boy was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after an episode of tonic-clonic seizure. His mother denied prenatal care. Non-contrast CT was showed both sub-ependymal and periventricular calcifications with cerebral volume loss. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Congenital CMV

    c.       Congenital hypothyroidism

    d.      Neurofibromatois

    e.       Hypoglycemia-induced seizure

     

    Answer: b. Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Incidence is 0.2-2.4% of live births. Intracranial calcifications are seen in 77% of those with imaging abnormalities typically in the sub-ependymal and periventricular regions of the brain along with brain atrophy.

       

    4.      Among all the intra-axial brain tumors, which of the following is mostly associated with intracranial calcifications?

    a.       Oligodendroglioma

    b.      Pilocytic astrocytoma

    c.       Dysembryonic neuroectodermal tumors

    d.      Medulloblastoma

    e.       Metastasis

     

    Answer: a. Oligodendrogliomas exhibit the highest frequency of calcifications (up to 90%). Calcifications can be scattered dots or clumped together to form large nodules, located centrally or peripherally and frequently in the frontal lobes.

       

    5.      A 50-year-old female patient presented with dry coughfatigue, and shortness of breath. On physical exam she has tender reddish bumps on the skin. Review of the systems revealed seizures and depression. CXR showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes and CT scan of the brain showed small calcified masses in the leptomeninges and periventricular white matter. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Hypothyroidism

    b.      Hyperparathyroidism

    c.       Hemochromatosis

    d.      Chronic lead toxicity

    e.       Sarcoidosis

     

    Answer: e. Sarcoidosis affects many organs including the CNS, lungs and skin. On non-contrast CT scan of the brain, small calcified granulomas can be seen in the leptomeninges, periventricular white matter, pons, hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and optic chiasm with varying degrees of edema.

     

  • New member:

    kevin moerenhout

    Non-Radiologist physician Switzerland, vaud

    ok...

  • Jeremy Lam

    2018-08-15 08:11:45 Visible by anyone.
  • Radiologist India, Kerala

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  • Muhammad Shoyab

    2018-08-01 06:29:29 Visible by anyone.
  • Joshua Ellis

    2019-07-09 16:38:32 Visible by anyone.
  • Charles Li Neuroradiology 05/24/2017

    Case History: A two-year-old female with homocystinuria due to CBS deficiency was admitted to improve metabolic control after incidentally finding mild asymptomatic bilateral papilledema on routine o...

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  • Eslam Youssef

    2018-07-13 23:01:37 Visible by anyone.
  • Michele Foresti

    2019-04-23 12:03:20 Visible by anyone.
  • Jeremy Lam

    2018-08-15 08:12:18 Visible by anyone.

    Case of persistent trigeminal artery associated with a cavernous carotid aneurysm. Join the debate- incidental or increased incidence? 

  • New member:

    nezih yaylı

    ,

    ...

  • New member:

    Andrew Chen

    Radiology resident United States, New York

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  • Jeffrey Gnerre Abdominal Imaging 11/17/2014

    Gallbladder varices are a rare form of collateralization that develops in patients with portal hypertension. We present here a case of gallbladder varices accurately diagnosed by contrast enhanced CT ...

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  • Kathryn Butler Abdominal Imaging 05/01/2015

    73 y/o M with a history of cystectomy and ileal conduit for bladder cancer, with bilateral nephrostomy tubes for ureteral stricture, presents with vomiting and obstipation for 24 hours....

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    Patricia Chambers

    Other resident United States, us

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    ANIKET MONDAL

    Radiology resident India, NEW DELHI

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    Don Nguyen

    Radiology resident United States, MA

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    Olutunde Oluwole

    Non-Radiologist physician Nigeria, Oyo

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    Hristo Hristov

    Radiologist Bulgaria,

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    Terrence Hui

    Radiology resident Singapore, -- No Selection --

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    Shishir Shetty

    Radiologist United Arab Emirates,

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