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  • New member:

    Amanda Strickland

    Technologist United States, Tx

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    Najme-sadat Moosavi

    Radiologist Iran,

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  • Elie Najem

    2018-11-12 03:05:02 Visible by anyone.

    Questions and Answers:

     

    1.      The most common site of intracranial calcifications in the pediatric population is:

    a.       Cerebellum

    b.      Periventricular region

    c.       Pineal gland

    d.      Thalamus

    e.       Falx cerebri

     

    Answer: c. In the pediatric population, they are typically seen in the pineal gland and choroid plexus. Pineal calcifications <1cm, appear as dots and tend to be benign in 40% of individuals less than 20 years old. Whereas pineal calcifications >1cm in patients younger than 9 years should be regarded as pathologic and warrant further investigation.

       

    2.      A blush-like pattern calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia in a child is typically seen in:

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Raine syndrome

    c.       Krabbe’s disease

    d.      Sturge-Weber  syndrome

    e.       Neurofibromatosis

     

    Answer: c. Krabbe’s disease is an autosomal recessive demyelinating disorder affecting infants due to galactocerebroside b-galactosidase deficiency leading to accumulation of abnormal lipids. A symmetrical blush-like pattern of calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia is characteristic.

     

    3.      A 3 day-old boy was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after an episode of tonic-clonic seizure. His mother denied prenatal care. Non-contrast CT was showed both sub-ependymal and periventricular calcifications with cerebral volume loss. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Congenital CMV

    c.       Congenital hypothyroidism

    d.      Neurofibromatois

    e.       Hypoglycemia-induced seizure

     

    Answer: b. Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Incidence is 0.2-2.4% of live births. Intracranial calcifications are seen in 77% of those with imaging abnormalities typically in the sub-ependymal and periventricular regions of the brain along with brain atrophy.

       

    4.      Among all the intra-axial brain tumors, which of the following is mostly associated with intracranial calcifications?

    a.       Oligodendroglioma

    b.      Pilocytic astrocytoma

    c.       Dysembryonic neuroectodermal tumors

    d.      Medulloblastoma

    e.       Metastasis

     

    Answer: a. Oligodendrogliomas exhibit the highest frequency of calcifications (up to 90%). Calcifications can be scattered dots or clumped together to form large nodules, located centrally or peripherally and frequently in the frontal lobes.

       

    5.      A 50-year-old female patient presented with dry coughfatigue, and shortness of breath. On physical exam she has tender reddish bumps on the skin. Review of the systems revealed seizures and depression. CXR showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes and CT scan of the brain showed small calcified masses in the leptomeninges and periventricular white matter. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Hypothyroidism

    b.      Hyperparathyroidism

    c.       Hemochromatosis

    d.      Chronic lead toxicity

    e.       Sarcoidosis

     

    Answer: e. Sarcoidosis affects many organs including the CNS, lungs and skin. On non-contrast CT scan of the brain, small calcified granulomas can be seen in the leptomeninges, periventricular white matter, pons, hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and optic chiasm with varying degrees of edema.

     

  • Keegan Hovis Abdominal Imaging 01/25/2015

    A 24-year-old male underwent a laparoscopic appendectomy for a perforated appendix. Three months later he returned with sharp 5/10 pain in the right upper quadrant, a high-grade fever, and positive Mu...

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  • New member:

    Cheng kailiang

    Radiologist China,

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  • Michele Foresti

    2019-07-06 13:42:11 Visible by anyone.
  • Medical student Azerbaijan, Baku

    Dr.Lazeroloq...

  • New member:

    Alasdair Spinner

    Recruiter United Kingdom,

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  • New member:

    Ajay Madhavan

    Radiology resident United States, MN

    Resident...

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    Doreen Ng

    Other (see other profession) United States, NY

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    Michele Foresti

    Radiologist Italy, Italy

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  • aliza decruz

    2019-07-08 02:43:17 Visible by anyone.

    We are a dedicated, hard working and professional SEO company In USA, serving thousands of clients of various categories. We have the capability, rich experience and complete knowledge of understanding your business environment and apply the right solutions and professional SEO services to bring your business website in the top positions in the search engine results.

  • New member:

    Monica Ch

    Medical student United States, MD

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  • Thomas Brooke Interventional Radiology 10/24/2017

    A 74 year old female with a history of coronary artery disease and immobility due to body habitus presented to her primary care provider with pleuritic chest pain, concerning for pulmonary embolism. A...

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  • Benjamin Howe Musculoskeletal Imaging 06/20/2017

    Intraosseous lipomas are rare primary bone tumors, most common to the calcaneus. There are several proposed theories of the natural etiology of intraosseous lipomas; however, all lack definitive suppo...

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  • Radiologist India, Kerala

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  • Radiology resident India, Rajasthan

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  • Vandana Ahluwalia Interesting radiology cases. 07/08/2016

    Why is this case report worthy? Late and unusual presentation of a large paravertebral teratoma with intraspinal extension presented as radiculopathy in a young girl makes the case unusual and unique...

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  • Shyann Renfroe Breast Imaging 08/02/2017

    A 46 year old female presented with a new left breast mass measuring 0.8 cm in greatest dimension (image 1,2, and 3). She subsequently underwent ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy of the mass yieldi...

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    Pam Jackson

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  • Alysse Sever Neuroradiology 10/06/2015

    Case Report Our patient, a 72 year old female with a past history of a right frontoparietal stroke and residual left hemiparesis, presented to the emergency room with a one day history of headache an...

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