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  • New member:

    Tamer Elhiti

    Radiologist Egypt, Nasrcity

    ...

  • Eslam Youssef

    2018-07-13 23:01:37 Visible by anyone.
  • Joshua Ellis

    2019-07-09 16:38:32 Visible by anyone.
  • New member:

    True Jodi

    Radiologist United States,

    ...

  • New member:

    Andrew Stubenrauch

    Medical student United States, SC

    ...

  • New member:

    Charles Hommen

    Other (see other profession) United States, WI

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  • Elie Najem

    2018-11-12 03:05:02 Visible by anyone.

    Questions and Answers:

     

    1.      The most common site of intracranial calcifications in the pediatric population is:

    a.       Cerebellum

    b.      Periventricular region

    c.       Pineal gland

    d.      Thalamus

    e.       Falx cerebri

     

    Answer: c. In the pediatric population, they are typically seen in the pineal gland and choroid plexus. Pineal calcifications <1cm, appear as dots and tend to be benign in 40% of individuals less than 20 years old. Whereas pineal calcifications >1cm in patients younger than 9 years should be regarded as pathologic and warrant further investigation.

       

    2.      A blush-like pattern calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia in a child is typically seen in:

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Raine syndrome

    c.       Krabbe’s disease

    d.      Sturge-Weber  syndrome

    e.       Neurofibromatosis

     

    Answer: c. Krabbe’s disease is an autosomal recessive demyelinating disorder affecting infants due to galactocerebroside b-galactosidase deficiency leading to accumulation of abnormal lipids. A symmetrical blush-like pattern of calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia is characteristic.

     

    3.      A 3 day-old boy was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after an episode of tonic-clonic seizure. His mother denied prenatal care. Non-contrast CT was showed both sub-ependymal and periventricular calcifications with cerebral volume loss. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Congenital CMV

    c.       Congenital hypothyroidism

    d.      Neurofibromatois

    e.       Hypoglycemia-induced seizure

     

    Answer: b. Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Incidence is 0.2-2.4% of live births. Intracranial calcifications are seen in 77% of those with imaging abnormalities typically in the sub-ependymal and periventricular regions of the brain along with brain atrophy.

       

    4.      Among all the intra-axial brain tumors, which of the following is mostly associated with intracranial calcifications?

    a.       Oligodendroglioma

    b.      Pilocytic astrocytoma

    c.       Dysembryonic neuroectodermal tumors

    d.      Medulloblastoma

    e.       Metastasis

     

    Answer: a. Oligodendrogliomas exhibit the highest frequency of calcifications (up to 90%). Calcifications can be scattered dots or clumped together to form large nodules, located centrally or peripherally and frequently in the frontal lobes.

       

    5.      A 50-year-old female patient presented with dry coughfatigue, and shortness of breath. On physical exam she has tender reddish bumps on the skin. Review of the systems revealed seizures and depression. CXR showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes and CT scan of the brain showed small calcified masses in the leptomeninges and periventricular white matter. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Hypothyroidism

    b.      Hyperparathyroidism

    c.       Hemochromatosis

    d.      Chronic lead toxicity

    e.       Sarcoidosis

     

    Answer: e. Sarcoidosis affects many organs including the CNS, lungs and skin. On non-contrast CT scan of the brain, small calcified granulomas can be seen in the leptomeninges, periventricular white matter, pons, hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and optic chiasm with varying degrees of edema.

     

  • New member:

    Hafsa Babar

    Radiologist Pakistan, punjab

    I am currently working as a Chief Resident in Radiology Department. (Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital, Lahore.) I want to learn about latest advances in the field of radiology as well as am ver...

  • Mark Sharafinski Neuroradiology 11/20/2014

    Figure 1. 11 year old male with primary CNS germ cell tumor. Diagnostic MRI performed at initial presentation. A. Findings: Sagittal T1-weighted MRI demonstrates a well-circumscribed, lobulated pine...

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  • New member:

    Dr. Veres Krisztian

    Radiologist Hungary, Budapest

    ...

  • Jeffrey Gnerre Abdominal Imaging 11/17/2014

    Gallbladder varices are a rare form of collateralization that develops in patients with portal hypertension. We present here a case of gallbladder varices accurately diagnosed by contrast enhanced CT ...

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  • Antonella Smedile Abdominal Imaging 09/22/2017

    A 52 year old caucasian woman, with history of ovarian pelvic pain and without any systemic symptoms, underwent a transvaginal ultrasonography, in which was detected a right ovarian enlargement. Compu...

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  • New member:

    Bradley Monteforte

    Radiology resident United States,

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  • New member:

    Hristo Hristov

    Radiologist Bulgaria,

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  • New member:

    stefania ghinassi

    ,

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  • New member:

    Amit Ramjit

    Radiology resident United States, NY

    Radiology resident...

  • Amin Hoseinzadeh Abdominal Imaging 09/19/2017

    Of the reported cases of hepatic artery aneurysm so far, vascular pancreatitis related complications occur following sever pancreatitis e.g. necrotizing pancreatitis. We present an unusual patient who...

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  • Kanika Gupta obstetric USG 07/16/2015

    This is a rare case of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) of a fetus diagnosed on a routine antenatal ultrasound scan at 19 weeks gestation. Pre-natal sonogram revealed characteristic...

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  • Daniel Mizrahi Abdominal Imaging 09/29/2016

    39 year old female with acute arterial extravasation from spontaneous avulsion of a pedunculated leiomyoma confirmed intraoperatively. Hemoperitoneum with hypovolemic shock from avulsion of a subseros...

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  • navjot singh Pediatric radiology 02/28/2015

    Background: Teratomas are tumors composed of tissues derived from more than one germ cell line. Intrapulmonary teratomas is very rare disease. Case characterstics: 16-year-old male presented with dys...

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  • Dhruv Taneja Abdominal Imaging 05/17/2015

    Circumcaval ureter is a relatively uncommon congenital cause of obstructive hydronephrosis resulting from anomalous formation of the infra renal inferior vena cava (IVC). It usually presents in 3rd ...

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  • New member:

    Justin Cole

    Other resident United States, Texas

    ...

  • New member:

    Eugene Lewandowski

    Radiologist Belarus,

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  • New member:

    Mark Spriggs

    ,

    ...

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  • New member:

    Ghiam Yamin

    Radiologist United States, CA- CALIFORNIA

    ...

  • New member:

    Jay Satapara

    Radiology resident India, Gujarat

    I am a radiology resident....

  • Mark Sharafinski Neuroradiology 11/21/2014

    Figure 1. 11 year old male with primary CNS germ cell tumor. Diagnostic MRI performed at initial presentation. A. Findings: Sagittal T1-weighted MRI demonstrates a well-circumscribed, lobulated pine...

    See details