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  • New member:

    Kelsey Berman

    Medical student United States, Florida


  • Ahmed Abdel Aal Interventional Radiology 07/16/2015

    We report a case of 79 year-old man with history of complete heart block and multiple morbidities, who presented with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. On examination, the patient was found to hav...

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  • Elie Najem

    2018-11-12 03:05:02 Visible by anyone.

    Questions and Answers:


    1.      The most common site of intracranial calcifications in the pediatric population is:

    a.       Cerebellum

    b.      Periventricular region

    c.       Pineal gland

    d.      Thalamus

    e.       Falx cerebri


    Answer: c. In the pediatric population, they are typically seen in the pineal gland and choroid plexus. Pineal calcifications <1cm, appear as dots and tend to be benign in 40% of individuals less than 20 years old. Whereas pineal calcifications >1cm in patients younger than 9 years should be regarded as pathologic and warrant further investigation.


    2.      A blush-like pattern calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia in a child is typically seen in:

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Raine syndrome

    c.       Krabbe’s disease

    d.      Sturge-Weber  syndrome

    e.       Neurofibromatosis


    Answer: c. Krabbe’s disease is an autosomal recessive demyelinating disorder affecting infants due to galactocerebroside b-galactosidase deficiency leading to accumulation of abnormal lipids. A symmetrical blush-like pattern of calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia is characteristic.


    3.      A 3 day-old boy was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after an episode of tonic-clonic seizure. His mother denied prenatal care. Non-contrast CT was showed both sub-ependymal and periventricular calcifications with cerebral volume loss. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Congenital CMV

    c.       Congenital hypothyroidism

    d.      Neurofibromatois

    e.       Hypoglycemia-induced seizure


    Answer: b. Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Incidence is 0.2-2.4% of live births. Intracranial calcifications are seen in 77% of those with imaging abnormalities typically in the sub-ependymal and periventricular regions of the brain along with brain atrophy.


    4.      Among all the intra-axial brain tumors, which of the following is mostly associated with intracranial calcifications?

    a.       Oligodendroglioma

    b.      Pilocytic astrocytoma

    c.       Dysembryonic neuroectodermal tumors

    d.      Medulloblastoma

    e.       Metastasis


    Answer: a. Oligodendrogliomas exhibit the highest frequency of calcifications (up to 90%). Calcifications can be scattered dots or clumped together to form large nodules, located centrally or peripherally and frequently in the frontal lobes.


    5.      A 50-year-old female patient presented with dry coughfatigue, and shortness of breath. On physical exam she has tender reddish bumps on the skin. Review of the systems revealed seizures and depression. CXR showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes and CT scan of the brain showed small calcified masses in the leptomeninges and periventricular white matter. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Hypothyroidism

    b.      Hyperparathyroidism

    c.       Hemochromatosis

    d.      Chronic lead toxicity

    e.       Sarcoidosis


    Answer: e. Sarcoidosis affects many organs including the CNS, lungs and skin. On non-contrast CT scan of the brain, small calcified granulomas can be seen in the leptomeninges, periventricular white matter, pons, hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and optic chiasm with varying degrees of edema.


  • New member:

    Christina Oska

    Medical student United States, MI


  • New member:

    Stephan Ellmann

    Radiology resident Germany,


  • New member:

    Niharika Shahi

    Medical student Canada,


  • Connor Crowley Chest & Cardiac Imaging 04/17/2017

    CASE: A three-year-old male presented with a one-week history of fussiness, lack of appetite, intermittent nausea and vomiting, and a one-day history of fever. Five weeks prior, he had a VP shunt p...

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  • Muhammad Shoyab

    2018-08-01 06:29:29 Visible by anyone.
  • Sander Scholtens Musculoskeletal Imaging 03/01/2015

    Heterotopic ossification in post-operative scar tissue discovered after 25 years....

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  • shumyla jabeen Abdominal Imaging 08/12/2015

    70 year old male presented with abdominal pain and persistent bilious vomiting one month following Billroth II gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma. Axial IV contrast enhanced CT images in the venous pha...

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  • New member:

    shankar pavhane

    Technologist India, Maharashtra


  • Nicholas DuRocher Chest & Cardiac Imaging 05/29/2016

    Superior Vena Cava (SVC) occlusion causing SVC Syndrome is most commonly caused by malignancy, but there are several benign etiologies. With the increased use of central venous catheters since the 19...

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  • navjot singh Pediatric radiology 02/28/2015

    Background: Teratomas are tumors composed of tissues derived from more than one germ cell line. Intrapulmonary teratomas is very rare disease. Case characterstics: 16-year-old male presented with dys...

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  • Joshua Ellis

    2019-07-09 16:38:32 Visible by anyone.
  • Sneha Harish C

    2019-09-01 05:20:20 Visible by anyone.

  • Benjamin Howe Musculoskeletal Imaging 06/20/2017

    Intraosseous lipomas are rare primary bone tumors, most common to the calcaneus. There are several proposed theories of the natural etiology of intraosseous lipomas; however, all lack definitive suppo...

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  • New member:

    Sagindar Samaraj

    Non-Radiologist physician India, Tamil Nadu


  • New member:

    Arifur Rahman

    Radiology resident United States, MD

    Radiology resident at University of Illinois at Chicago from 2015 to 2019. Currently a Neuroradiology fellow at University of Maryland Medical Center....

  • New member:

    yanying huang

    IT professional China,


  • Filipa Vilaverde Abdominal Imaging 11/01/2015

    ABSTRACT Most cases of pancreatoblastoma, a rare malignant epithelial tumor of the pancreas, are seen in the pediatric population. The rarity of pancreatoblastoma, the similar radiologic findings to ...

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  • New member:

    Jonan Chun Yin Lee

    Radiologist Hong Kong,


  • New member:

    Virgil Peck

    Non-Radiologist physician United States, California


  • New member:

    Amanda Drennan



  • Ahmed Abdel Aal Interventional Radiology 01/19/2015

    We report a case of an indwelling inferior vena cava (IVC) filter that penetrated the IVC wall after Whipple’s pancreatico-duodenectomy procedure performed in a patient with ampullary carcinoma, res...

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  • Pablo Blanco Neuroradiology 11/04/2014

    Intracranial hematomas, midline shift and cerebral aneurysms are conditions that can be readily detected non-invasively with transcranial color-coded duplex sonography. A previously healthy 46-year-o...

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  • New member:

    Mohamed Awali

    Radiology resident Lebanon,


  • Nicole Lamparello Interventional Radiology 01/27/2016

    A 41 year-old man presented to our institution for treatment of T7 and T8 compression fractures sustained during an epileptic seizure 3 months prior. Kyphoplasty under general anesthesia was complicat...

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