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  • New member:

    Eleni Kariki

    Radiology resident United Kingdom,

    ...

  • Radiologist India, Tamilnadu

    Consultant Radiologist ...

  • Jacob Miller

    2019-08-14 04:15:00 Visible by anyone.
  • New member:

    Conrad Jackson

    Radiology resident Australia,

    ...

  • New member:

    Paul Miller

    Medical student United States, Ca

    Fourth Year Medical Student at Loma Linda University ...

  • Elie Najem

    2018-11-12 03:05:02 Visible by anyone.

    Questions and Answers:

     

    1.      The most common site of intracranial calcifications in the pediatric population is:

    a.       Cerebellum

    b.      Periventricular region

    c.       Pineal gland

    d.      Thalamus

    e.       Falx cerebri

     

    Answer: c. In the pediatric population, they are typically seen in the pineal gland and choroid plexus. Pineal calcifications <1cm, appear as dots and tend to be benign in 40% of individuals less than 20 years old. Whereas pineal calcifications >1cm in patients younger than 9 years should be regarded as pathologic and warrant further investigation.

       

    2.      A blush-like pattern calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia in a child is typically seen in:

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Raine syndrome

    c.       Krabbe’s disease

    d.      Sturge-Weber  syndrome

    e.       Neurofibromatosis

     

    Answer: c. Krabbe’s disease is an autosomal recessive demyelinating disorder affecting infants due to galactocerebroside b-galactosidase deficiency leading to accumulation of abnormal lipids. A symmetrical blush-like pattern of calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia is characteristic.

     

    3.      A 3 day-old boy was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after an episode of tonic-clonic seizure. His mother denied prenatal care. Non-contrast CT was showed both sub-ependymal and periventricular calcifications with cerebral volume loss. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Congenital CMV

    c.       Congenital hypothyroidism

    d.      Neurofibromatois

    e.       Hypoglycemia-induced seizure

     

    Answer: b. Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Incidence is 0.2-2.4% of live births. Intracranial calcifications are seen in 77% of those with imaging abnormalities typically in the sub-ependymal and periventricular regions of the brain along with brain atrophy.

       

    4.      Among all the intra-axial brain tumors, which of the following is mostly associated with intracranial calcifications?

    a.       Oligodendroglioma

    b.      Pilocytic astrocytoma

    c.       Dysembryonic neuroectodermal tumors

    d.      Medulloblastoma

    e.       Metastasis

     

    Answer: a. Oligodendrogliomas exhibit the highest frequency of calcifications (up to 90%). Calcifications can be scattered dots or clumped together to form large nodules, located centrally or peripherally and frequently in the frontal lobes.

       

    5.      A 50-year-old female patient presented with dry coughfatigue, and shortness of breath. On physical exam she has tender reddish bumps on the skin. Review of the systems revealed seizures and depression. CXR showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes and CT scan of the brain showed small calcified masses in the leptomeninges and periventricular white matter. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Hypothyroidism

    b.      Hyperparathyroidism

    c.       Hemochromatosis

    d.      Chronic lead toxicity

    e.       Sarcoidosis

     

    Answer: e. Sarcoidosis affects many organs including the CNS, lungs and skin. On non-contrast CT scan of the brain, small calcified granulomas can be seen in the leptomeninges, periventricular white matter, pons, hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and optic chiasm with varying degrees of edema.

     

  • navjot singh Pediatric radiology 02/28/2015

    Background: Teratomas are tumors composed of tissues derived from more than one germ cell line. Intrapulmonary teratomas is very rare disease. Case characterstics: 16-year-old male presented with dys...

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  • Amrutha Ramachandran Musculoskeletal Imaging 11/06/2014

    A 77 year old male with extramedullary plasmacytomas of the left leg. Axial T1 image (1.5 Tesla, TR/TE = 679msec/9msec, slice thickness=7mm) shows two large infiltrative intramuscular solid masses in...

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  • Joshua Ellis

    2019-07-09 16:38:32 Visible by anyone.
  • aliza decruz

    2019-07-08 02:43:17 Visible by anyone.

    We are a dedicated, hard working and professional SEO company In USA, serving thousands of clients of various categories. We have the capability, rich experience and complete knowledge of understanding your business environment and apply the right solutions and professional SEO services to bring your business website in the top positions in the search engine results.

  • Nicholas DuRocher Chest & Cardiac Imaging 05/29/2016

    Superior Vena Cava (SVC) occlusion causing SVC Syndrome is most commonly caused by malignancy, but there are several benign etiologies. With the increased use of central venous catheters since the 19...

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  • New member:

    Yagut Huseyn

    Radiologist Azerbaijan,

    ...

  • New member:

    RAVIKUMAR HANUMAIAH

    Radiologist United States, TN

    I am a Radiologist from India. I have completed 3 fellowships in Neuroradiology, Body Imaging and Pediatric Radiology....

  • New member:

    Dukagjin Zeqiraj

    Medical student Albania,

    ...

  • New member:

    Bryan len

    Technologist Australia, WA

    ...

  • New member:

    Shuaib Kajee

    Radiologist ,

    ...

  • New member:

    Ramesh Allada

    Radiologist India, Telangana

    ...

  • New member:

    Shamaita Majumdar

    Medical student United States, Missouri

    ...

  • Mahyar Mohammadifard Neuroradiology 11/02/2016

    68 y/o female...

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  • New member:

    Jonan Chun Yin Lee

    Radiologist Hong Kong,

    Radiologist...

  • New member:

    Holger Spittank

    Non-Radiologist physician Germany,

    ...

  • New member:

    laveena polina

    Radiologist India, telangana

    ...

  • Marianna Glorioso Musculoskeletal Imaging 05/28/2017

    During a CT scan of a patient who was admitted at the department of Radiology, Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, with a previous fracture of the scapular body and spina scapulae, we noticed an unexpected b...

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  • Jeffrey Gnerre Abdominal Imaging 11/17/2014

    Gallbladder varices are a rare form of collateralization that develops in patients with portal hypertension. We present here a case of gallbladder varices accurately diagnosed by contrast enhanced CT ...

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  • New member:

    laura gualan

    Radiology resident Ecuador,

    ...