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  • ANJUNA REGHUNATH Breast Imaging 11/19/2015

    A 62 year old female patient presented to us in October 2015 with a painful left breast lump which had grown progressively in size over the past 8 months. She had undergone a surgical resection for a ...

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  • New member:

    Filippo Pesapane

    Radiology resident United Kingdom,

    Radiologist with focus on breast and urogenital imaging. Interpreted all breast imaging studies (mammography, US, CEUS, ABUS, MRI), pelvic MRI, whole-body MRI. Performed all breast procedures (stereot...

  • Sneha Harish C

    2019-09-01 05:20:47 Visible by anyone.

  • Ahmed Abdel Aal Interventional Radiology 02/26/2015

    a case of Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with associated hypersplenism, that was referred to us for partial splenic embolization (PSE) because the patient was not a surgical candidate for splenect...

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  • Elie Najem

    2018-11-12 03:05:02 Visible by anyone.

    Questions and Answers:


    1.      The most common site of intracranial calcifications in the pediatric population is:

    a.       Cerebellum

    b.      Periventricular region

    c.       Pineal gland

    d.      Thalamus

    e.       Falx cerebri


    Answer: c. In the pediatric population, they are typically seen in the pineal gland and choroid plexus. Pineal calcifications <1cm, appear as dots and tend to be benign in 40% of individuals less than 20 years old. Whereas pineal calcifications >1cm in patients younger than 9 years should be regarded as pathologic and warrant further investigation.


    2.      A blush-like pattern calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia in a child is typically seen in:

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Raine syndrome

    c.       Krabbe’s disease

    d.      Sturge-Weber  syndrome

    e.       Neurofibromatosis


    Answer: c. Krabbe’s disease is an autosomal recessive demyelinating disorder affecting infants due to galactocerebroside b-galactosidase deficiency leading to accumulation of abnormal lipids. A symmetrical blush-like pattern of calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia is characteristic.


    3.      A 3 day-old boy was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after an episode of tonic-clonic seizure. His mother denied prenatal care. Non-contrast CT was showed both sub-ependymal and periventricular calcifications with cerebral volume loss. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Congenital CMV

    c.       Congenital hypothyroidism

    d.      Neurofibromatois

    e.       Hypoglycemia-induced seizure


    Answer: b. Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Incidence is 0.2-2.4% of live births. Intracranial calcifications are seen in 77% of those with imaging abnormalities typically in the sub-ependymal and periventricular regions of the brain along with brain atrophy.


    4.      Among all the intra-axial brain tumors, which of the following is mostly associated with intracranial calcifications?

    a.       Oligodendroglioma

    b.      Pilocytic astrocytoma

    c.       Dysembryonic neuroectodermal tumors

    d.      Medulloblastoma

    e.       Metastasis


    Answer: a. Oligodendrogliomas exhibit the highest frequency of calcifications (up to 90%). Calcifications can be scattered dots or clumped together to form large nodules, located centrally or peripherally and frequently in the frontal lobes.


    5.      A 50-year-old female patient presented with dry coughfatigue, and shortness of breath. On physical exam she has tender reddish bumps on the skin. Review of the systems revealed seizures and depression. CXR showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes and CT scan of the brain showed small calcified masses in the leptomeninges and periventricular white matter. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Hypothyroidism

    b.      Hyperparathyroidism

    c.       Hemochromatosis

    d.      Chronic lead toxicity

    e.       Sarcoidosis


    Answer: e. Sarcoidosis affects many organs including the CNS, lungs and skin. On non-contrast CT scan of the brain, small calcified granulomas can be seen in the leptomeninges, periventricular white matter, pons, hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and optic chiasm with varying degrees of edema.


  • New member:

    Enrico Müller

    Radiology resident Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul


  • Connor Crowley Chest & Cardiac Imaging 04/17/2017

    CASE: A three-year-old male presented with a one-week history of fussiness, lack of appetite, intermittent nausea and vomiting, and a one-day history of fever. Five weeks prior, he had a VP shunt p...

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  • yudell edelstein

    2019-02-09 21:57:24 Visible by anyone.

    Comment my case

    Ruptured Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Appendix
    The uploaded images are not showing up

  • Joshua Ellis

    2019-07-09 16:38:32 Visible by anyone.
  • New member:

    Nicolas Gillingham



  • Jeremy Lam

    2018-08-15 08:12:18 Visible by anyone.

    Case of persistent trigeminal artery associated with a cavernous carotid aneurysm. Join the debate- incidental or increased incidence? 

  • Tushar Garg

    2018-07-29 23:47:12 Visible by anyone.
  • New member:

    shankar pavhane

    Technologist India, Maharashtra


  • New member:

    wondu Dejen

    Radiology resident Ethiopia,


  • New member:

    Ovidiu Floria

    Radiology resident Romania, Ilfov


  • New member:

    Virgil Peck

    Non-Radiologist physician United States, California


  • Ahmed Abdel Aal Interventional Radiology 01/19/2015

    We report a case of an indwelling inferior vena cava (IVC) filter that penetrated the IVC wall after Whipple’s pancreatico-duodenectomy procedure performed in a patient with ampullary carcinoma, res...

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  • New member:

    Doreen Ng

    Other (see other profession) United States, NY


  • Nicholas DuRocher Chest & Cardiac Imaging 05/29/2016

    Superior Vena Cava (SVC) occlusion causing SVC Syndrome is most commonly caused by malignancy, but there are several benign etiologies. With the increased use of central venous catheters since the 19...

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  • New member:

    mina tavakol

    Radiology resident Iran, Islamic Republic Of,


  • New member:

    Elizabeth Lacey



  • david santiago uscamaita del castillo Chest & Cardiac Imaging 04/09/2015

    Origin of the anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery ( ALCAPA ) Also known as Bland -White -Garland syndrome , is an uncommon congenital heart disease . Approximately 90 % of pati...

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  • New member:

    Dr. Veres Krisztian

    Radiologist Hungary, Budapest


  • Radiologist Iran, Islamic Republic Of,


  • New member:

    yanying huang

    IT professional China,