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  • Elie Najem

    2018-11-12 03:05:02 Visible by anyone.

    Questions and Answers:

     

    1.      The most common site of intracranial calcifications in the pediatric population is:

    a.       Cerebellum

    b.      Periventricular region

    c.       Pineal gland

    d.      Thalamus

    e.       Falx cerebri

     

    Answer: c. In the pediatric population, they are typically seen in the pineal gland and choroid plexus. Pineal calcifications <1cm, appear as dots and tend to be benign in 40% of individuals less than 20 years old. Whereas pineal calcifications >1cm in patients younger than 9 years should be regarded as pathologic and warrant further investigation.

       

    2.      A blush-like pattern calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia in a child is typically seen in:

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Raine syndrome

    c.       Krabbe’s disease

    d.      Sturge-Weber  syndrome

    e.       Neurofibromatosis

     

    Answer: c. Krabbe’s disease is an autosomal recessive demyelinating disorder affecting infants due to galactocerebroside b-galactosidase deficiency leading to accumulation of abnormal lipids. A symmetrical blush-like pattern of calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia is characteristic.

     

    3.      A 3 day-old boy was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after an episode of tonic-clonic seizure. His mother denied prenatal care. Non-contrast CT was showed both sub-ependymal and periventricular calcifications with cerebral volume loss. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Congenital CMV

    c.       Congenital hypothyroidism

    d.      Neurofibromatois

    e.       Hypoglycemia-induced seizure

     

    Answer: b. Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Incidence is 0.2-2.4% of live births. Intracranial calcifications are seen in 77% of those with imaging abnormalities typically in the sub-ependymal and periventricular regions of the brain along with brain atrophy.

       

    4.      Among all the intra-axial brain tumors, which of the following is mostly associated with intracranial calcifications?

    a.       Oligodendroglioma

    b.      Pilocytic astrocytoma

    c.       Dysembryonic neuroectodermal tumors

    d.      Medulloblastoma

    e.       Metastasis

     

    Answer: a. Oligodendrogliomas exhibit the highest frequency of calcifications (up to 90%). Calcifications can be scattered dots or clumped together to form large nodules, located centrally or peripherally and frequently in the frontal lobes.

       

    5.      A 50-year-old female patient presented with dry coughfatigue, and shortness of breath. On physical exam she has tender reddish bumps on the skin. Review of the systems revealed seizures and depression. CXR showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes and CT scan of the brain showed small calcified masses in the leptomeninges and periventricular white matter. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Hypothyroidism

    b.      Hyperparathyroidism

    c.       Hemochromatosis

    d.      Chronic lead toxicity

    e.       Sarcoidosis

     

    Answer: e. Sarcoidosis affects many organs including the CNS, lungs and skin. On non-contrast CT scan of the brain, small calcified granulomas can be seen in the leptomeninges, periventricular white matter, pons, hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and optic chiasm with varying degrees of edema.

     

  • New member:

    Muhammad Asghar

    Other (see other profession) Pakistan, Kpk

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  • New member:

    Technologist USSR,

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  • Michele Foresti

    2019-04-23 12:03:20 Visible by anyone.
  • Ahmed Abdel Aal Interventional Radiology 01/19/2015

    We report a case of an indwelling inferior vena cava (IVC) filter that penetrated the IVC wall after Whipple’s pancreatico-duodenectomy procedure performed in a patient with ampullary carcinoma, res...

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  • New member:

    Candace WINSTON

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  • Sean Haight Musculoskeletal Imaging 06/07/2017

    Propionibacterium acnes septic arthritis following one of two shoulder arthrograms. This is a rare pathogen for shoulder infections and is possibly related to a recent tattoo that the patient had acqu...

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  • Arian Mashhood Neuroradiology 02/01/2015

    The patient presented with acute onset right-sided weakness and slurred speech. MRI was performed, revealing a subtle diffusion restriction (panel B) with a large perfusion defect (panel C) and venous...

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  • Shyann Renfroe Breast Imaging 08/02/2017

    A 46 year old female presented with a new left breast mass measuring 0.8 cm in greatest dimension (image 1,2, and 3). She subsequently underwent ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy of the mass yieldi...

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  • yudell edelstein

    2019-02-09 21:57:24 Visible by anyone.

    Comment my case

    Ruptured Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Appendix
    The uploaded images are not showing up

  • Malvika Gulati

    2019-07-11 10:24:59 Visible by anyone.
  • Jeremy Lam

    2018-08-15 08:12:18 Visible by anyone.

    Case of persistent trigeminal artery associated with a cavernous carotid aneurysm. Join the debate- incidental or increased incidence? 

  • New member:

    Kelsey Berman

    Medical student United States, Florida

    ...

  • New member:

    Martin Igbokwe

    Non-Radiologist physician Nigeria, ABUJA

    A Urologist and Kidney transplant Surgeon with keen interest in Uro-radiology...

  • New member:

    santosh kumar

    Technologist student India, Telangana

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  • New member:

    Mohamed El roos

    Radiology resident Egypt,

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  • New member:

    mina tavakol

    Radiology resident Iran, Islamic Republic Of,

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  • Vandanaa vc foetal 11/23/2014

    A 23 yr old G2P1L1 patient came to our centre with 3 months amenorrhoea for a routine nuchal translucency scan. Ultrasound examination revealed a single live foetus corresponding to 13 + weeks with ...

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  • New member:

    Hansi Seerhinter

    Freelancer Germany,

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  • New member:

    Andrea Salina

    Radiology resident Brazil, Ceara

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  • New member:

    vishal walasangikar

    Radiologist India, MAHARASHTRA

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  • New member:

    Dima Hmaid

    Radiology resident Jordan,

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