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  • New member:

    Fateme Hosseinabadi

    Radiologist Iran, Islamic Republic Of,

    ...

  • New member:

    Paul Miller

    Medical student United States, Ca

    Fourth Year Medical Student at Loma Linda University ...

  • New member:

    Oscar Vila

    Radiologist Spain, Pontevedra

    ...

  • Elie Najem

    2018-11-12 03:05:02 Visible by anyone.

    Questions and Answers:

     

    1.      The most common site of intracranial calcifications in the pediatric population is:

    a.       Cerebellum

    b.      Periventricular region

    c.       Pineal gland

    d.      Thalamus

    e.       Falx cerebri

     

    Answer: c. In the pediatric population, they are typically seen in the pineal gland and choroid plexus. Pineal calcifications <1cm, appear as dots and tend to be benign in 40% of individuals less than 20 years old. Whereas pineal calcifications >1cm in patients younger than 9 years should be regarded as pathologic and warrant further investigation.

       

    2.      A blush-like pattern calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia in a child is typically seen in:

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Raine syndrome

    c.       Krabbe’s disease

    d.      Sturge-Weber  syndrome

    e.       Neurofibromatosis

     

    Answer: c. Krabbe’s disease is an autosomal recessive demyelinating disorder affecting infants due to galactocerebroside b-galactosidase deficiency leading to accumulation of abnormal lipids. A symmetrical blush-like pattern of calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia is characteristic.

     

    3.      A 3 day-old boy was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after an episode of tonic-clonic seizure. His mother denied prenatal care. Non-contrast CT was showed both sub-ependymal and periventricular calcifications with cerebral volume loss. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Congenital CMV

    c.       Congenital hypothyroidism

    d.      Neurofibromatois

    e.       Hypoglycemia-induced seizure

     

    Answer: b. Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Incidence is 0.2-2.4% of live births. Intracranial calcifications are seen in 77% of those with imaging abnormalities typically in the sub-ependymal and periventricular regions of the brain along with brain atrophy.

       

    4.      Among all the intra-axial brain tumors, which of the following is mostly associated with intracranial calcifications?

    a.       Oligodendroglioma

    b.      Pilocytic astrocytoma

    c.       Dysembryonic neuroectodermal tumors

    d.      Medulloblastoma

    e.       Metastasis

     

    Answer: a. Oligodendrogliomas exhibit the highest frequency of calcifications (up to 90%). Calcifications can be scattered dots or clumped together to form large nodules, located centrally or peripherally and frequently in the frontal lobes.

       

    5.      A 50-year-old female patient presented with dry coughfatigue, and shortness of breath. On physical exam she has tender reddish bumps on the skin. Review of the systems revealed seizures and depression. CXR showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes and CT scan of the brain showed small calcified masses in the leptomeninges and periventricular white matter. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Hypothyroidism

    b.      Hyperparathyroidism

    c.       Hemochromatosis

    d.      Chronic lead toxicity

    e.       Sarcoidosis

     

    Answer: e. Sarcoidosis affects many organs including the CNS, lungs and skin. On non-contrast CT scan of the brain, small calcified granulomas can be seen in the leptomeninges, periventricular white matter, pons, hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and optic chiasm with varying degrees of edema.

     

  • New member:

    Victoria Wapf

    Other resident Switzerland,

    ...

  • Malvika Gulati

    2019-07-11 10:24:59 Visible by anyone.
  • Jeremy Lam

    2018-08-15 08:12:18 Visible by anyone.

    Case of persistent trigeminal artery associated with a cavernous carotid aneurysm. Join the debate- incidental or increased incidence? 

  • New member:

    KH LUI

    ,

    ...

  • Sneha Harish C

    2019-09-01 05:20:47 Visible by anyone.

  • New member:

    Martin Igbokwe

    Non-Radiologist physician Nigeria, ABUJA

    A Urologist and Kidney transplant Surgeon with keen interest in Uro-radiology...

  • Sneha Harish C

    2019-09-01 05:20:20 Visible by anyone.

  • Michele Foresti

    2019-04-23 12:03:20 Visible by anyone.
  • New member:

    Ritesh Kanodia

    Radiology resident Nepal, Banke

    ...

  • New member:

    Radio World

    Radiologist United Kingdom, Walsall

    ...

  • New member:

    Rengin TÜRKGÜLER

    Radiologist Turkey,

    ...

  • New member:

    besbes djamel

    ,

    ...

  • New member:

    Alex Bergman

    Radiology resident United States, California

    ...

  • New member:

    Radius Kusuma

    Radiology resident Indonesia, DKI Jakarta

    Radiology Residents in University of Indonesia...

  • christen chaconas Miscellaneous 04/09/2018

    Case Presentation & Clinical History: Patient DP is a 65-year-old Caucasian male with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer involving multiple bones. He began androgen deprivation therapy ...

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  • Sean Haight Musculoskeletal Imaging 06/07/2017

    This is an unfortunate case of a young male who acquired a septic arthritis of his right shoulder following one of two arthrograms. Sterile technigue was followed for both procedures and no cause was ...

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  • New member:

    yanying huang

    IT professional China,

    ...

  • New member:

    Ovidiu Floria

    Radiology resident Romania, Ilfov

    ...

  • New member:

    As Bdf

    Technologist student United States,

    ...

  • New member:

    Timmy Hosein

    Radiology resident Trinidad And Tobago,

    ...

  • New member:

    Sagindar Samaraj

    Non-Radiologist physician India, Tamil Nadu

    ...