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  • New member:

    Bryce Beutler

    Other resident United States, CA

    Internal medicine resident...

  • New member:

    Uday J Thakkar

    Radiology resident India, Maharashtra


  • Shivaprasad Savagave Interesting radiology cases. 09/05/2015

    Case of CPAM who presented with respiratory distress and CT and chest radiograph features suggestive of congenital lobar overinflation (CLO)....

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  • Sneha Harish C

    2019-09-01 05:20:20 Visible by anyone.

  • Dmitriy Kravets Musculoskeletal Imaging 01/29/2016

    Patient was suffering from pronounced pain in left shoulder after needle wire fixation (made 3 days before) of rupted acromioclavicular joint. Just fantastic how patient patients we have! No bleeding,...

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  • Radiology resident Iran, Islamic Republic Of,


  • New member:

    Maryam Ramzy

    Other (see other profession) Egypt, egypt


  • Elie Najem

    2018-11-12 03:05:02 Visible by anyone.

    Questions and Answers:


    1.      The most common site of intracranial calcifications in the pediatric population is:

    a.       Cerebellum

    b.      Periventricular region

    c.       Pineal gland

    d.      Thalamus

    e.       Falx cerebri


    Answer: c. In the pediatric population, they are typically seen in the pineal gland and choroid plexus. Pineal calcifications <1cm, appear as dots and tend to be benign in 40% of individuals less than 20 years old. Whereas pineal calcifications >1cm in patients younger than 9 years should be regarded as pathologic and warrant further investigation.


    2.      A blush-like pattern calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia in a child is typically seen in:

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Raine syndrome

    c.       Krabbe’s disease

    d.      Sturge-Weber  syndrome

    e.       Neurofibromatosis


    Answer: c. Krabbe’s disease is an autosomal recessive demyelinating disorder affecting infants due to galactocerebroside b-galactosidase deficiency leading to accumulation of abnormal lipids. A symmetrical blush-like pattern of calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia is characteristic.


    3.      A 3 day-old boy was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after an episode of tonic-clonic seizure. His mother denied prenatal care. Non-contrast CT was showed both sub-ependymal and periventricular calcifications with cerebral volume loss. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Congenital CMV

    c.       Congenital hypothyroidism

    d.      Neurofibromatois

    e.       Hypoglycemia-induced seizure


    Answer: b. Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Incidence is 0.2-2.4% of live births. Intracranial calcifications are seen in 77% of those with imaging abnormalities typically in the sub-ependymal and periventricular regions of the brain along with brain atrophy.


    4.      Among all the intra-axial brain tumors, which of the following is mostly associated with intracranial calcifications?

    a.       Oligodendroglioma

    b.      Pilocytic astrocytoma

    c.       Dysembryonic neuroectodermal tumors

    d.      Medulloblastoma

    e.       Metastasis


    Answer: a. Oligodendrogliomas exhibit the highest frequency of calcifications (up to 90%). Calcifications can be scattered dots or clumped together to form large nodules, located centrally or peripherally and frequently in the frontal lobes.


    5.      A 50-year-old female patient presented with dry coughfatigue, and shortness of breath. On physical exam she has tender reddish bumps on the skin. Review of the systems revealed seizures and depression. CXR showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes and CT scan of the brain showed small calcified masses in the leptomeninges and periventricular white matter. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Hypothyroidism

    b.      Hyperparathyroidism

    c.       Hemochromatosis

    d.      Chronic lead toxicity

    e.       Sarcoidosis


    Answer: e. Sarcoidosis affects many organs including the CNS, lungs and skin. On non-contrast CT scan of the brain, small calcified granulomas can be seen in the leptomeninges, periventricular white matter, pons, hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and optic chiasm with varying degrees of edema.


  • New member:

    Shweta Kataria

    Radiology resident India,


  • Jacob Miller

    2019-08-14 04:15:00 Visible by anyone.
  • Jeremy Lam

    2018-08-15 08:12:18 Visible by anyone.

    Case of persistent trigeminal artery associated with a cavernous carotid aneurysm. Join the debate- incidental or increased incidence? 

  • Sunil Jeph Neuroradiology 05/18/2017

    A 75-year male with reported past medical history of coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, hypertension, right carotid artery stenosis. He had undergone right CEA 7 days ago. He was on aspir...

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  • New member:

    Nikita Lakkundi

    Medical student India, Maharashtra


  • New member:

    Christina Oska

    Medical student United States, MI


  • New member:

    Siok Chung



  • New member:

    Tafseer Ahmed



  • New member:

    Mohamed El roos

    Radiology resident Egypt,


  • Fadi El-Merhi Abdominal Imaging 01/29/2018

    Although rare, retroperitoneal seminomas should be kept in mind among retroperitoneal tumors’ differential in men at their 5th decade. Narrowing of the differentials is done through microscopic exam...

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  • Shih-Yao Cheng Abdominal Imaging 01/13/2015

    A two-year-ten-month-old boy presented with a fistula located at penoscrotal junction. His parents just noticed it recently before bringing him to a doctor. There was no history of trauma or surgical ...

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