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  • Elie Najem

    2018-11-12 03:05:02 Visible by anyone.

    Questions and Answers:

     

    1.      The most common site of intracranial calcifications in the pediatric population is:

    a.       Cerebellum

    b.      Periventricular region

    c.       Pineal gland

    d.      Thalamus

    e.       Falx cerebri

     

    Answer: c. In the pediatric population, they are typically seen in the pineal gland and choroid plexus. Pineal calcifications <1cm, appear as dots and tend to be benign in 40% of individuals less than 20 years old. Whereas pineal calcifications >1cm in patients younger than 9 years should be regarded as pathologic and warrant further investigation.

       

    2.      A blush-like pattern calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia in a child is typically seen in:

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Raine syndrome

    c.       Krabbe’s disease

    d.      Sturge-Weber  syndrome

    e.       Neurofibromatosis

     

    Answer: c. Krabbe’s disease is an autosomal recessive demyelinating disorder affecting infants due to galactocerebroside b-galactosidase deficiency leading to accumulation of abnormal lipids. A symmetrical blush-like pattern of calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia is characteristic.

     

    3.      A 3 day-old boy was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after an episode of tonic-clonic seizure. His mother denied prenatal care. Non-contrast CT was showed both sub-ependymal and periventricular calcifications with cerebral volume loss. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Congenital CMV

    c.       Congenital hypothyroidism

    d.      Neurofibromatois

    e.       Hypoglycemia-induced seizure

     

    Answer: b. Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Incidence is 0.2-2.4% of live births. Intracranial calcifications are seen in 77% of those with imaging abnormalities typically in the sub-ependymal and periventricular regions of the brain along with brain atrophy.

       

    4.      Among all the intra-axial brain tumors, which of the following is mostly associated with intracranial calcifications?

    a.       Oligodendroglioma

    b.      Pilocytic astrocytoma

    c.       Dysembryonic neuroectodermal tumors

    d.      Medulloblastoma

    e.       Metastasis

     

    Answer: a. Oligodendrogliomas exhibit the highest frequency of calcifications (up to 90%). Calcifications can be scattered dots or clumped together to form large nodules, located centrally or peripherally and frequently in the frontal lobes.

       

    5.      A 50-year-old female patient presented with dry coughfatigue, and shortness of breath. On physical exam she has tender reddish bumps on the skin. Review of the systems revealed seizures and depression. CXR showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes and CT scan of the brain showed small calcified masses in the leptomeninges and periventricular white matter. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Hypothyroidism

    b.      Hyperparathyroidism

    c.       Hemochromatosis

    d.      Chronic lead toxicity

    e.       Sarcoidosis

     

    Answer: e. Sarcoidosis affects many organs including the CNS, lungs and skin. On non-contrast CT scan of the brain, small calcified granulomas can be seen in the leptomeninges, periventricular white matter, pons, hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and optic chiasm with varying degrees of edema.

     

  • Sean Haight Musculoskeletal Imaging 06/07/2017

    This is an unfortunate case of a young male who acquired a septic arthritis of his right shoulder following one of two arthrograms. Sterile technigue was followed for both procedures and no cause was ...

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  • Muhammad Shoyab

    2018-08-01 06:29:29 Visible by anyone.
  • Jacob Miller

    2019-08-14 04:15:00 Visible by anyone.
  • New member:

    Leanne Chin

    Radiology resident Hong Kong,

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  • Radiology resident United States, CT

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  • Michele Foresti

    2019-04-23 12:03:20 Visible by anyone.
  • New member:

    Alasdair Spinner

    Recruiter United Kingdom,

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  • Holger Spittank Musculoskeletal Imaging 05/28/2016

    Background: Malsegmentation of the fourth occipital vertebra can result in various anomalies that are known as ‘manifestation of the proatlas’. The occurrence of a persistent proatlas with addit...

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  • yudell edelstein

    2019-02-09 21:57:24 Visible by anyone.

    Comment my case

    Ruptured Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Appendix
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  • New member:

    ciara fields

    Technologist student United States, California

    I am a college student, really interested in entering the radiology field.. I would love to network, and learn via this online community. If you know of any Radiology Shadow programs in the sacrament...

  • Jeremy Lam

    2018-08-15 08:12:18 Visible by anyone.

    Case of persistent trigeminal artery associated with a cavernous carotid aneurysm. Join the debate- incidental or increased incidence? 

  • New member:

    Steven Ladely

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  • Filip Matijević Interventional Radiology 05/05/2015

    We are presenting a case of subclavian and axillary artery aneurysm, which was successfully treated with a stent graft, only to present 3 months post treatment with symptoms of graft occlusion. We ini...

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  • Alexander Reddy Neuroradiology 02/05/2017

    A 34-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital after acute loss of motor and sensory function in lower extremities as well as urine and bowel incontinence. On admission, the patient was not hyperten...

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  • Roland Talanow Neuroradiology 02/12/2015

    There is approximately 1.5 x 1.1 x 2.0 cm cystic lesion located within the mesial subcortical white matter of the posterior left occipitoparietal lobe. Cystic area demonstrates restricted diffusion. ...

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  • Mohamad Abdalkader Abdominal Imaging 02/09/2017

    28 yo female patient presented with abdominal pain, weight loss and episodic bloody vomitting. Diagnsosis: Gastric duplication cyst with internal bleeding. 1. Extremely rare entity in adults (4% of...

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  • shumyla jabeen Abdominal Imaging 08/12/2015

    70 year old male presented with abdominal pain and persistent bilious vomiting one month following Billroth II gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma. Axial IV contrast enhanced CT images in the venous pha...

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  • New member:

    Daniel Helmy

    Radiology resident United States, CA

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  • Shivaprasad Savagave Interesting radiology cases. 09/05/2015

    Case of CPAM who presented with respiratory distress and CT and chest radiograph features suggestive of congenital lobar overinflation (CLO)....

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  • Arian Mashhood Neuroradiology 02/01/2015

    The patient presented with acute onset right-sided weakness and slurred speech. MRI was performed, revealing a subtle diffusion restriction (panel B) with a large perfusion defect (panel C) and venous...

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  • Bilal Amin Sethi Neuroradiology 12/12/2016

    A previously well 16 year old male presented to the Emergency Department (ED) in the evening with a feeling of discomfort in his neck and throat. He admitted to being intoxicated with alcohol the pre...

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  • New member:

    Marco Varrassi

    Radiologist Italy,

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  • New member:

    Raghuveer Prasad

    Radiologist India, Kerala

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  • New member:

    Aakanksha Agarwal

    Radiology resident India, Rajasthan

    Resident, radiology, India...