We report the case of a 24-year-old woman with a history of bicuspid aortic valve stenosis who had undergone commissurotomy at the age of 5 years. At the age of 22 years, the aortic valve was replaced...See details
Neurofibromatosis type-1 or Von Recklinghausen disease is a multisystem neurocutaneous disorder and the most common phakomatosis. One of the main characteristics of this disease is systemic and progre...See details
Consultant Radiologist ...
Case History: A two-year-old female with homocystinuria due to CBS deficiency was admitted to improve metabolic control after incidentally finding mild asymptomatic bilateral papilledema on routine o...See details
Forty four patients with a diagnosis of sickle cell disease in steady state had a Doppler ultrasound assessment of their hepatic veins done. Six of this patients showed a biphasic spectral pattern whi...See details
Take a vote! Help us enhance the interpretability of A.I. systems in Radiology:
Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) systems are achieving remarkable performances in radiology, but at the cost of increased complexity. Hence, they become less interpretable.
As these systems are pervasively being introduced to radiology, we believe it becomes imperative to develop dedicated methodologies to enhance the interpretability of A.I. technologies.
Interpretability methods could help physicians to decide whether they should follow/trust a prediction from an A.I. system. Ultimately, interpretability of A.I. systems is closely linked to safety in healthcare.
The following poll is meant to collect radiologists’ opinions about methods to enhance the interpretability of A.I. systems developed to assist radiologists.
We thank you in advance for taking 5 minutes to answer this poll. The results of the poll are going to be made publicly available and part of a related publication where this topic will be discussed.
On behalf of the organisers and supporters of iMIMIC Workshop (Interpretability of Machine Intelligence in Medical Image Computing)
Questions and Answers:
1. The most common site of intracranial calcifications in the pediatric population is:
b. Periventricular region
c. Pineal gland
e. Falx cerebri
Answer: c. In the pediatric population, they are typically seen in the pineal gland and choroid plexus. Pineal calcifications <1cm, appear as dots and tend to be benign in 40% of individuals less than 20 years old. Whereas pineal calcifications >1cm in patients younger than 9 years should be regarded as pathologic and warrant further investigation.
2. A blush-like pattern calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia in a child is typically seen in:
a. Tuberous sclerosis
b. Raine syndrome
c. Krabbe’s disease
d. Sturge-Weber syndrome
Answer: c. Krabbe’s disease is an autosomal recessive demyelinating disorder affecting infants due to galactocerebroside b-galactosidase deficiency leading to accumulation of abnormal lipids. A symmetrical blush-like pattern of calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia is characteristic.
3. A 3 day-old boy was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after an episode of tonic-clonic seizure. His mother denied prenatal care. Non-contrast CT was showed both sub-ependymal and periventricular calcifications with cerebral volume loss. What is the most likely diagnosis?
a. Tuberous sclerosis
b. Congenital CMV
c. Congenital hypothyroidism
e. Hypoglycemia-induced seizure
Answer: b. Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Incidence is 0.2-2.4% of live births. Intracranial calcifications are seen in 77% of those with imaging abnormalities typically in the sub-ependymal and periventricular regions of the brain along with brain atrophy.
4. Among all the intra-axial brain tumors, which of the following is mostly associated with intracranial calcifications?
b. Pilocytic astrocytoma
c. Dysembryonic neuroectodermal tumors
Answer: a. Oligodendrogliomas exhibit the highest frequency of calcifications (up to 90%). Calcifications can be scattered dots or clumped together to form large nodules, located centrally or peripherally and frequently in the frontal lobes.
5. A 50-year-old female patient presented with dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. On physical exam she has tender reddish bumps on the skin. Review of the systems revealed seizures and depression. CXR showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes and CT scan of the brain showed small calcified masses in the leptomeninges and periventricular white matter. What is the most likely diagnosis?
d. Chronic lead toxicity
Answer: e. Sarcoidosis affects many organs including the CNS, lungs and skin. On non-contrast CT scan of the brain, small calcified granulomas can be seen in the leptomeninges, periventricular white matter, pons, hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and optic chiasm with varying degrees of edema.
A 22 year old male presented to neurology department with chief complaints of gradually progressive weakness in all the four limbs since the past nine months. The strength in upper limbs had diminishe...See details
Teratomas are among the most common pediatric tumors and are the most common tumors diagnosed prenatally. The vast majority are either sacrococcygeal or head and neck in origin. However, other sites a...See details
A Urologist and Kidney transplant Surgeon with keen interest in Uro-radiology...
Radiology resident at University of Illinois at Chicago from 2015 to 2019. Currently a Neuroradiology fellow at University of Maryland Medical Center....
A 26 week-gestational age female with poor maternal prenatal care was emergently delivered via cesarean section due to poor waveform on umbilical artery Doppler. A fetal ultrasound prior to delivery d...See details
Internal medicine resident...