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  • Jeremy Lam

    2018-08-15 08:12:18 Visible by anyone.

    Case of persistent trigeminal artery associated with a cavernous carotid aneurysm. Join the debate- incidental or increased incidence? 

  • New member:

    Ogbeide Evbuomwan

    Radiologist United Kingdom, Essex


  • Abhilasha Jain Pediatric radiology 05/10/2017

    A month old female infant presented with chest wall swelling, deformity, cough and breathing difficulty. At 23 weeks of gestation the same foetus was diagnosed on routine antenatal ultrasound having a...

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  • New member:

    Filip Matijević

    Radiology resident Croatia,


  • Elie Najem

    2018-11-12 03:05:02 Visible by anyone.

    Questions and Answers:


    1.      The most common site of intracranial calcifications in the pediatric population is:

    a.       Cerebellum

    b.      Periventricular region

    c.       Pineal gland

    d.      Thalamus

    e.       Falx cerebri


    Answer: c. In the pediatric population, they are typically seen in the pineal gland and choroid plexus. Pineal calcifications <1cm, appear as dots and tend to be benign in 40% of individuals less than 20 years old. Whereas pineal calcifications >1cm in patients younger than 9 years should be regarded as pathologic and warrant further investigation.


    2.      A blush-like pattern calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia in a child is typically seen in:

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Raine syndrome

    c.       Krabbe’s disease

    d.      Sturge-Weber  syndrome

    e.       Neurofibromatosis


    Answer: c. Krabbe’s disease is an autosomal recessive demyelinating disorder affecting infants due to galactocerebroside b-galactosidase deficiency leading to accumulation of abnormal lipids. A symmetrical blush-like pattern of calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia is characteristic.


    3.      A 3 day-old boy was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after an episode of tonic-clonic seizure. His mother denied prenatal care. Non-contrast CT was showed both sub-ependymal and periventricular calcifications with cerebral volume loss. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Congenital CMV

    c.       Congenital hypothyroidism

    d.      Neurofibromatois

    e.       Hypoglycemia-induced seizure


    Answer: b. Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Incidence is 0.2-2.4% of live births. Intracranial calcifications are seen in 77% of those with imaging abnormalities typically in the sub-ependymal and periventricular regions of the brain along with brain atrophy.


    4.      Among all the intra-axial brain tumors, which of the following is mostly associated with intracranial calcifications?

    a.       Oligodendroglioma

    b.      Pilocytic astrocytoma

    c.       Dysembryonic neuroectodermal tumors

    d.      Medulloblastoma

    e.       Metastasis


    Answer: a. Oligodendrogliomas exhibit the highest frequency of calcifications (up to 90%). Calcifications can be scattered dots or clumped together to form large nodules, located centrally or peripherally and frequently in the frontal lobes.


    5.      A 50-year-old female patient presented with dry coughfatigue, and shortness of breath. On physical exam she has tender reddish bumps on the skin. Review of the systems revealed seizures and depression. CXR showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes and CT scan of the brain showed small calcified masses in the leptomeninges and periventricular white matter. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Hypothyroidism

    b.      Hyperparathyroidism

    c.       Hemochromatosis

    d.      Chronic lead toxicity

    e.       Sarcoidosis


    Answer: e. Sarcoidosis affects many organs including the CNS, lungs and skin. On non-contrast CT scan of the brain, small calcified granulomas can be seen in the leptomeninges, periventricular white matter, pons, hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and optic chiasm with varying degrees of edema.


  • Keegan Hovis Abdominal Imaging 01/25/2015

    A 24-year-old male underwent a laparoscopic appendectomy for a perforated appendix. Three months later he returned with sharp 5/10 pain in the right upper quadrant, a high-grade fever, and positive Mu...

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  • New member:

    Welli Aldi

    Industry representative Iceland, iceland


  • New member:

    Virgil Peck

    Non-Radiologist physician United States, California


  • Connor Crowley Chest & Cardiac Imaging 04/17/2017

    CASE: A three-year-old male presented with a one-week history of fussiness, lack of appetite, intermittent nausea and vomiting, and a one-day history of fever. Five weeks prior, he had a VP shunt p...

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  • New member:


    Radiology resident India,


  • New member:

    Richa Verma

    Radiologist India, HIMACHAL PRADESH

    learning and enthusiastic radiologist...

  • New member:

    laura gualan

    Radiology resident Ecuador,


  • New member:

    Mohammed Quraishi

    Radiologist United States, MD


  • New member:

    Hazem shousha

    Other resident Egypt, Alexandria


  • Ahmed Abdel Aal Interventional Radiology 01/16/2015

    We report a case of an indwelling inferior vena cava (IVC) filter that penetrated the IVC wall after Whipple’s pancreatico-duodenectomy procedure performed in a patient with ampullary carcinoma, res...

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  • Iara Lacerda Pediatric radiology 07/30/2016

    The diagnosis of head and neck masses and fistulas can be challenging. Differential diagnoses include tumors, infections, or congenital lesions. Knowledge of embryology and anatomy of both common and ...

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  • New member:

    Sumit Sharma

    Radiology resident India, Pondicherry


  • New member:

    Dukagjin Zeqiraj

    Medical student Albania,