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  • New member:

    fareed Shirzad

    Radiologist Afghanistan, Nangarhar


  • New member:

    Ramy Abdelnaby

    Radiology resident Germany, NRW


  • New member:

    Nikolče Ristevski

    Nurse Serbia, Serbia


  • New member:

    Michele Foresti

    Radiologist Italy, Italy


  • Tushar Garg

    2018-07-29 23:47:12 Visible by anyone.
  • Muhammad Shoyab

    2018-08-01 06:29:29 Visible by anyone.
  • Tushar Sabharwal Miscellaneous 06/05/2016

    The tumors of salivary glands that contain fat are not very common and generally occur in elderly males in their fourth decade. These manifest as lipoma, oncocytic lipoadenoma, non-oncocytic sialolipo...

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  • Joshua Ellis

    2019-07-09 16:38:32 Visible by anyone.
  • New member:


    Radiologist Ecuador,


  • New member:

    Dilip Pawar

    Radiologist India, Mahashtra


  • Olivia Francies Neuroradiology 03/05/2017

    We report two cases of patients with increased central skull base and craniocervical junction bone pneumatisation complicated by extra-osseous gas. One patient presented with symptoms of increasing na...

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  • Elie Najem

    2018-11-12 03:05:02 Visible by anyone.

    Questions and Answers:


    1.      The most common site of intracranial calcifications in the pediatric population is:

    a.       Cerebellum

    b.      Periventricular region

    c.       Pineal gland

    d.      Thalamus

    e.       Falx cerebri


    Answer: c. In the pediatric population, they are typically seen in the pineal gland and choroid plexus. Pineal calcifications <1cm, appear as dots and tend to be benign in 40% of individuals less than 20 years old. Whereas pineal calcifications >1cm in patients younger than 9 years should be regarded as pathologic and warrant further investigation.


    2.      A blush-like pattern calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia in a child is typically seen in:

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Raine syndrome

    c.       Krabbe’s disease

    d.      Sturge-Weber  syndrome

    e.       Neurofibromatosis


    Answer: c. Krabbe’s disease is an autosomal recessive demyelinating disorder affecting infants due to galactocerebroside b-galactosidase deficiency leading to accumulation of abnormal lipids. A symmetrical blush-like pattern of calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia is characteristic.


    3.      A 3 day-old boy was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after an episode of tonic-clonic seizure. His mother denied prenatal care. Non-contrast CT was showed both sub-ependymal and periventricular calcifications with cerebral volume loss. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Congenital CMV

    c.       Congenital hypothyroidism

    d.      Neurofibromatois

    e.       Hypoglycemia-induced seizure


    Answer: b. Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Incidence is 0.2-2.4% of live births. Intracranial calcifications are seen in 77% of those with imaging abnormalities typically in the sub-ependymal and periventricular regions of the brain along with brain atrophy.


    4.      Among all the intra-axial brain tumors, which of the following is mostly associated with intracranial calcifications?

    a.       Oligodendroglioma

    b.      Pilocytic astrocytoma

    c.       Dysembryonic neuroectodermal tumors

    d.      Medulloblastoma

    e.       Metastasis


    Answer: a. Oligodendrogliomas exhibit the highest frequency of calcifications (up to 90%). Calcifications can be scattered dots or clumped together to form large nodules, located centrally or peripherally and frequently in the frontal lobes.


    5.      A 50-year-old female patient presented with dry coughfatigue, and shortness of breath. On physical exam she has tender reddish bumps on the skin. Review of the systems revealed seizures and depression. CXR showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes and CT scan of the brain showed small calcified masses in the leptomeninges and periventricular white matter. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Hypothyroidism

    b.      Hyperparathyroidism

    c.       Hemochromatosis

    d.      Chronic lead toxicity

    e.       Sarcoidosis


    Answer: e. Sarcoidosis affects many organs including the CNS, lungs and skin. On non-contrast CT scan of the brain, small calcified granulomas can be seen in the leptomeninges, periventricular white matter, pons, hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and optic chiasm with varying degrees of edema.


  • Jeremy Lam

    2018-08-15 08:11:45 Visible by anyone.
  • Marci Handler Abdominal Imaging 09/10/2016

    Primary appendiceal adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy, which comprises less than 0.5% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms. Most commonly, these tumors present as acute appendicitis or as a right lower...

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  • Rahul Verma Musculoskeletal Imaging 07/11/2017

    A 65-year-old female with a history of progressive systemic sclerosis presented with left shoulder and bilateral external ear pain. Physical exam revealed, tender nodular calcium deposition in both ea...

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  • Shivaprakash Hiremath Abdominal Imaging 06/15/2015

    A 43 year old female, a known case of Ulcerative colitis, presented with history of lower abdominal pain since three days which was dull aching and continuous in nature, associated with low grade feve...

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  • New member:

    Elena Piazza

    Radiologist Italy, italy


  • New member:

    Marcus Maciel

    Radiology resident Brazil, Santa Catarina


  • Radiology resident Greece, Greece


  • New member:

    Konstantin Dmitriev

    Other resident Ukraine,


  • Vandanaa vc foetal 11/23/2014

    A 23 yr old G2P1L1 patient came to our centre with 3 months amenorrhoea for a routine nuchal translucency scan. Ultrasound examination revealed a single live foetus corresponding to 13 + weeks with ...

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  • New member:

    Matias Alet

    Non-Radiologist physician Argentina,

    Fellow - Neurovascular Diseases - FLENI...

  • New member:

    Justin Boe

    Radiologist United States, OK


  • New member:

    Giulio Zizzo

    Radiologist Italy, Fg


  • New member:


    Radiology resident India,


  • New member:

    Rachel McNamara

    Technologist United States, Wisconsin