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  • New member:

    Stephan Ellmann

    Radiology resident Germany,

    ...

  • New member:

    Rachel McNamara

    Technologist United States, Wisconsin

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  • Adil Omer Neuroradiology 09/24/2016

    A 4 year old male presented to the pediatric endocrinologist with global developmental delay and growth retardation. The patient’s prenatal and neonatal records were significant for a maternal histo...

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  • Eslam Youssef

    2018-07-13 23:01:37 Visible by anyone.
  • Abhilasha Jain Pediatric radiology 05/10/2017

    A month old female infant presented with chest wall swelling, deformity, cough and breathing difficulty. At 23 weeks of gestation the same foetus was diagnosed on routine antenatal ultrasound having a...

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  • New member:

    Technologist USSR,

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  • Elie Najem

    2018-11-12 03:05:02 Visible by anyone.

    Questions and Answers:

     

    1.      The most common site of intracranial calcifications in the pediatric population is:

    a.       Cerebellum

    b.      Periventricular region

    c.       Pineal gland

    d.      Thalamus

    e.       Falx cerebri

     

    Answer: c. In the pediatric population, they are typically seen in the pineal gland and choroid plexus. Pineal calcifications <1cm, appear as dots and tend to be benign in 40% of individuals less than 20 years old. Whereas pineal calcifications >1cm in patients younger than 9 years should be regarded as pathologic and warrant further investigation.

       

    2.      A blush-like pattern calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia in a child is typically seen in:

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Raine syndrome

    c.       Krabbe’s disease

    d.      Sturge-Weber  syndrome

    e.       Neurofibromatosis

     

    Answer: c. Krabbe’s disease is an autosomal recessive demyelinating disorder affecting infants due to galactocerebroside b-galactosidase deficiency leading to accumulation of abnormal lipids. A symmetrical blush-like pattern of calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia is characteristic.

     

    3.      A 3 day-old boy was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after an episode of tonic-clonic seizure. His mother denied prenatal care. Non-contrast CT was showed both sub-ependymal and periventricular calcifications with cerebral volume loss. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Congenital CMV

    c.       Congenital hypothyroidism

    d.      Neurofibromatois

    e.       Hypoglycemia-induced seizure

     

    Answer: b. Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Incidence is 0.2-2.4% of live births. Intracranial calcifications are seen in 77% of those with imaging abnormalities typically in the sub-ependymal and periventricular regions of the brain along with brain atrophy.

       

    4.      Among all the intra-axial brain tumors, which of the following is mostly associated with intracranial calcifications?

    a.       Oligodendroglioma

    b.      Pilocytic astrocytoma

    c.       Dysembryonic neuroectodermal tumors

    d.      Medulloblastoma

    e.       Metastasis

     

    Answer: a. Oligodendrogliomas exhibit the highest frequency of calcifications (up to 90%). Calcifications can be scattered dots or clumped together to form large nodules, located centrally or peripherally and frequently in the frontal lobes.

       

    5.      A 50-year-old female patient presented with dry coughfatigue, and shortness of breath. On physical exam she has tender reddish bumps on the skin. Review of the systems revealed seizures and depression. CXR showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes and CT scan of the brain showed small calcified masses in the leptomeninges and periventricular white matter. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Hypothyroidism

    b.      Hyperparathyroidism

    c.       Hemochromatosis

    d.      Chronic lead toxicity

    e.       Sarcoidosis

     

    Answer: e. Sarcoidosis affects many organs including the CNS, lungs and skin. On non-contrast CT scan of the brain, small calcified granulomas can be seen in the leptomeninges, periventricular white matter, pons, hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and optic chiasm with varying degrees of edema.

     

  • Tushar Garg

    2018-07-29 23:47:12 Visible by anyone.
  • Muhammad Shoyab

    2018-08-01 06:29:29 Visible by anyone.
  • Michele Foresti

    2019-04-23 12:03:20 Visible by anyone.
  • Joshua Ellis

    2019-07-09 16:38:32 Visible by anyone.
  • Kelsey Bourm Pediatric radiology 06/11/2015

    An 8-year-old female born at 29 weeks gestational age with a history of cerebral palsy and three prior VP shunt revisions presents with a 2-day history of nonbilious, fever, and cephalgia. CT Head on ...

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  • New member:

    Marco Ertreo

    Radiology resident United States, DC

    ...

  • New member:

    Bradley Monteforte

    Radiology resident United States,

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  • Nicholas DuRocher Chest & Cardiac Imaging 05/29/2016

    Superior Vena Cava (SVC) occlusion causing SVC Syndrome is most commonly caused by malignancy, but there are several benign etiologies. With the increased use of central venous catheters since the 19...

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  • Hanisha Patel Pediatric radiology 08/31/2016

    A 17-year-old Hispanic female with no significant past medical history presented with painless left neck mass that she noticed for several days before presentation. Physical exam revealed a non-tender...

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  • New member:

    Michael Larson

    Radiology resident United States, AZ

    ...

  • New member:

    Nazimah Ab Mumin

    Radiologist Malaysia, Selangor

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  • New member:

    Sneha Harish C

    Radiology resident India, Delhi

    Im a radiology resident....