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  • New member:

    John Stelzer

    Medical student United States, FL


  • Kelsey Bourm Pediatric radiology 06/11/2015

    An 8-year-old female born at 29 weeks gestational age with a history of cerebral palsy and three prior VP shunt revisions presents with a 2-day history of nonbilious, fever, and cephalgia. CT Head on ...

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  • Rahul Verma Musculoskeletal Imaging 07/11/2017

    A 65-year-old female with a history of progressive systemic sclerosis presented with left shoulder and bilateral external ear pain. Physical exam revealed, tender nodular calcium deposition in both ea...

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  • Alaa Mahmoud Pediatric radiology 10/06/2017

    Teratomas are among the most common pediatric tumors and are the most common tumors diagnosed prenatally. The vast majority are either sacrococcygeal or head and neck in origin. However, other sites a...

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  • New member:

    Siok Chung



  • New member:

    Aniket Mondal

    Radiology resident India, New Delhi


  • Sneha Harish C

    2019-09-01 05:20:47 Visible by anyone.

  • New member:


    Radiologist India, SAMBALPUR


  • Michele Foresti

    2019-07-06 13:42:11 Visible by anyone.
  • Elie Najem

    2018-11-12 03:05:02 Visible by anyone.

    Questions and Answers:


    1.      The most common site of intracranial calcifications in the pediatric population is:

    a.       Cerebellum

    b.      Periventricular region

    c.       Pineal gland

    d.      Thalamus

    e.       Falx cerebri


    Answer: c. In the pediatric population, they are typically seen in the pineal gland and choroid plexus. Pineal calcifications <1cm, appear as dots and tend to be benign in 40% of individuals less than 20 years old. Whereas pineal calcifications >1cm in patients younger than 9 years should be regarded as pathologic and warrant further investigation.


    2.      A blush-like pattern calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia in a child is typically seen in:

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Raine syndrome

    c.       Krabbe’s disease

    d.      Sturge-Weber  syndrome

    e.       Neurofibromatosis


    Answer: c. Krabbe’s disease is an autosomal recessive demyelinating disorder affecting infants due to galactocerebroside b-galactosidase deficiency leading to accumulation of abnormal lipids. A symmetrical blush-like pattern of calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia is characteristic.


    3.      A 3 day-old boy was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after an episode of tonic-clonic seizure. His mother denied prenatal care. Non-contrast CT was showed both sub-ependymal and periventricular calcifications with cerebral volume loss. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Congenital CMV

    c.       Congenital hypothyroidism

    d.      Neurofibromatois

    e.       Hypoglycemia-induced seizure


    Answer: b. Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Incidence is 0.2-2.4% of live births. Intracranial calcifications are seen in 77% of those with imaging abnormalities typically in the sub-ependymal and periventricular regions of the brain along with brain atrophy.


    4.      Among all the intra-axial brain tumors, which of the following is mostly associated with intracranial calcifications?

    a.       Oligodendroglioma

    b.      Pilocytic astrocytoma

    c.       Dysembryonic neuroectodermal tumors

    d.      Medulloblastoma

    e.       Metastasis


    Answer: a. Oligodendrogliomas exhibit the highest frequency of calcifications (up to 90%). Calcifications can be scattered dots or clumped together to form large nodules, located centrally or peripherally and frequently in the frontal lobes.


    5.      A 50-year-old female patient presented with dry coughfatigue, and shortness of breath. On physical exam she has tender reddish bumps on the skin. Review of the systems revealed seizures and depression. CXR showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes and CT scan of the brain showed small calcified masses in the leptomeninges and periventricular white matter. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Hypothyroidism

    b.      Hyperparathyroidism

    c.       Hemochromatosis

    d.      Chronic lead toxicity

    e.       Sarcoidosis


    Answer: e. Sarcoidosis affects many organs including the CNS, lungs and skin. On non-contrast CT scan of the brain, small calcified granulomas can be seen in the leptomeninges, periventricular white matter, pons, hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and optic chiasm with varying degrees of edema.


  • yudell edelstein

    2019-02-09 21:57:24 Visible by anyone.

    Comment my case

    Ruptured Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Appendix
    The uploaded images are not showing up

  • vl retnakumari Miscellaneous 09/20/2015

    CROWNED DENS SYNDROME- A RARE CASE REPORT. DR. V.L .RATNAKUMARI, DR. DIVYA.S.NAIR A 45 year old lady presented with acute onset of severe neck pain and vomiting of 2 days duration. She had history...

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  • Armando Cavallo Musculoskeletal Imaging 10/25/2016

    A 70-year-old man presented to our Institution complaining swelling on the left flank and progressive pain rapidly increased over a period of six weeks. No injury or trauma were reported in the recent...

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  • New member:

    yildiz sengul

    Radiology resident Turkey, Kadikoy


  • aliza decruz

    2019-07-08 02:43:17 Visible by anyone.

    We are a dedicated, hard working and professional SEO company In USA, serving thousands of clients of various categories. We have the capability, rich experience and complete knowledge of understanding your business environment and apply the right solutions and professional SEO services to bring your business website in the top positions in the search engine results.

  • Taylor Schwartz Neuroradiology 10/09/2017

    Case Presentation: 31-year-old female with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus presented to the ED after an unwitnessed seizure. Patient was found on the floor in her bathroom unresponsive. She remained alte...

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  • New member:

    Monica Ch

    Medical student United States, MD


  • New member:

    James Hill

    Recruiter Australia, NSW


  • New member:

    Bryce Beutler

    Other resident United States, CA

    Internal medicine resident...

  • New member:


    Radiology resident India,


  • New member:

    Daphne Scarpelli

    Other (see other profession) United States, Oregon


  • New member:

    Arzu Ozturk



  • New member:

    As Bdf

    Technologist student United States,


  • Radiology resident United States, CT


  • Radiology resident India, UTTAR PARDESH