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  • Elie Najem

    2018-11-12 03:05:02 Visible by anyone.

    Questions and Answers:


    1.      The most common site of intracranial calcifications in the pediatric population is:

    a.       Cerebellum

    b.      Periventricular region

    c.       Pineal gland

    d.      Thalamus

    e.       Falx cerebri


    Answer: c. In the pediatric population, they are typically seen in the pineal gland and choroid plexus. Pineal calcifications <1cm, appear as dots and tend to be benign in 40% of individuals less than 20 years old. Whereas pineal calcifications >1cm in patients younger than 9 years should be regarded as pathologic and warrant further investigation.


    2.      A blush-like pattern calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia in a child is typically seen in:

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Raine syndrome

    c.       Krabbe’s disease

    d.      Sturge-Weber  syndrome

    e.       Neurofibromatosis


    Answer: c. Krabbe’s disease is an autosomal recessive demyelinating disorder affecting infants due to galactocerebroside b-galactosidase deficiency leading to accumulation of abnormal lipids. A symmetrical blush-like pattern of calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia is characteristic.


    3.      A 3 day-old boy was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after an episode of tonic-clonic seizure. His mother denied prenatal care. Non-contrast CT was showed both sub-ependymal and periventricular calcifications with cerebral volume loss. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Congenital CMV

    c.       Congenital hypothyroidism

    d.      Neurofibromatois

    e.       Hypoglycemia-induced seizure


    Answer: b. Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Incidence is 0.2-2.4% of live births. Intracranial calcifications are seen in 77% of those with imaging abnormalities typically in the sub-ependymal and periventricular regions of the brain along with brain atrophy.


    4.      Among all the intra-axial brain tumors, which of the following is mostly associated with intracranial calcifications?

    a.       Oligodendroglioma

    b.      Pilocytic astrocytoma

    c.       Dysembryonic neuroectodermal tumors

    d.      Medulloblastoma

    e.       Metastasis


    Answer: a. Oligodendrogliomas exhibit the highest frequency of calcifications (up to 90%). Calcifications can be scattered dots or clumped together to form large nodules, located centrally or peripherally and frequently in the frontal lobes.


    5.      A 50-year-old female patient presented with dry coughfatigue, and shortness of breath. On physical exam she has tender reddish bumps on the skin. Review of the systems revealed seizures and depression. CXR showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes and CT scan of the brain showed small calcified masses in the leptomeninges and periventricular white matter. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Hypothyroidism

    b.      Hyperparathyroidism

    c.       Hemochromatosis

    d.      Chronic lead toxicity

    e.       Sarcoidosis


    Answer: e. Sarcoidosis affects many organs including the CNS, lungs and skin. On non-contrast CT scan of the brain, small calcified granulomas can be seen in the leptomeninges, periventricular white matter, pons, hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and optic chiasm with varying degrees of edema.


  • Joshua Ellis

    2019-07-09 16:38:32 Visible by anyone.
  • Roland Talanow

    2019-07-12 17:23:50 Visible by anyone.

    Take a vote! Help us enhance the interpretability of A.I. systems in Radiology:


    Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) systems are achieving remarkable performances in radiology, but at the cost of increased complexity. Hence, they become less interpretable.

    As these systems are pervasively being introduced to radiology, we believe it becomes imperative to develop dedicated methodologies to enhance the interpretability of A.I. technologies.

    Interpretability methods could help physicians to decide whether they should follow/trust a prediction from an A.I. system. Ultimately, interpretability of A.I. systems is closely linked to safety in healthcare.

    The following poll is meant to collect radiologists’ opinions about methods to enhance the interpretability of A.I. systems developed to assist radiologists.

    We thank you in advance for taking 5 minutes to answer this poll. The results of the poll are going to be made publicly available and part of a related publication where this topic will be discussed.

    On behalf of the organisers and supporters of iMIMIC Workshop (Interpretability of Machine Intelligence in Medical Image Computing) 

  • New member:

    Madhurima Sharma

    Radiologist India,


  • Sneha Harish C

    2019-09-01 05:20:20 Visible by anyone.

  • Shih-Yao Cheng Abdominal Imaging 01/13/2015

    A two-year-ten-month-old boy presented with a fistula located at penoscrotal junction. His parents just noticed it recently before bringing him to a doctor. There was no history of trauma or surgical ...

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  • Jacob Miller

    2019-08-14 04:15:00 Visible by anyone.
  • New member:

    Kelsey Berman

    Medical student United States, Florida


  • Radiologist India, punjab


  • New member:

    Elena Piazza

    Radiologist Italy, italy


  • New member:

    Evgeniy Vlasov

    Radiologist Russian Federation, Moscow


  • Sneha Harish C

    2019-09-01 05:20:47 Visible by anyone.

  • New member:

    vishal walasangikar

    Radiologist India, MAHARASHTRA


  • Dr.CHAITRA SANTHOSH Interesting radiology cases. 06/16/2015

    Clinical history: A 42yr nulliparous female with Chronic Kidney Disease presented with acute urinary retention.She also had constipation since 1 month and irregular per-vaginal bleeding since 3 months...

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  • Andre Azevedo Interventional Radiology 09/17/2015

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is considered a simple and safe modality for treatment of hepatic lesions. The benefits related to RFA include low morbidity, performance on an outpatient basis and the p...

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  • New member:

    rida zanib

    Radiology resident Pakistan,


  • Marianna Glorioso Musculoskeletal Imaging 05/28/2017

    During a CT scan of a patient who was admitted at the department of Radiology, Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, with a previous fracture of the scapular body and spina scapulae, we noticed an unexpected b...

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  • New member:

    Yagut Huseyn

    Radiologist Azerbaijan,


  • anki CHAUHAN Miscellaneous 12/07/2017

    Ultrasound images showing right parotid gland in the parotid space and the empty left parotid space. ...

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  • New member:

    Cindy Chin



  • New member:

    Olivia Francies

    Radiology resident United Kingdom,


  • Lena Naffaa Musculoskeletal Imaging 03/06/2017

    Bone metastasis to the hands and feet, known as acrometastasis, is a very rare finding and tends to be associated with extensive metastasis. The patient is a 14-year-old girl who was diagnosed with a...

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  • New member:


    Radiologist United States, TN

    I am a Radiologist from India. I have completed 3 fellowships in Neuroradiology, Body Imaging and Pediatric Radiology....

  • New member:

    Olutunde Oluwole

    Non-Radiologist physician Nigeria, Oyo


  • New member:

    Jean-Marie Fiala

    Technologist Canada, Ontario


  • shumyla jabeen Abdominal Imaging 08/12/2015

    70 year old male presented with abdominal pain and persistent bilious vomiting one month following Billrothn II subtotal gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma. IV contrast enhanced CT with MPR revealed gr...

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