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  • Michele Foresti

    2019-07-06 13:42:11 Visible by anyone.
  • Amrutha Ramachandran Musculoskeletal Imaging 11/06/2014

    A 77 year old male with extramedullary plasmacytomas of the left leg. Axial T1 image (1.5 Tesla, TR/TE = 679msec/9msec, slice thickness=7mm) shows two large infiltrative intramuscular solid masses in...

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  • New member:

    Bryce Beutler

    Other resident United States, CA

    Internal medicine resident...

  • New member:

    Bradley Monteforte

    Radiology resident United States,


  • Joshua Ellis

    2019-07-09 16:38:32 Visible by anyone.
  • Elie Najem

    2018-11-12 03:05:02 Visible by anyone.

    Questions and Answers:


    1.      The most common site of intracranial calcifications in the pediatric population is:

    a.       Cerebellum

    b.      Periventricular region

    c.       Pineal gland

    d.      Thalamus

    e.       Falx cerebri


    Answer: c. In the pediatric population, they are typically seen in the pineal gland and choroid plexus. Pineal calcifications <1cm, appear as dots and tend to be benign in 40% of individuals less than 20 years old. Whereas pineal calcifications >1cm in patients younger than 9 years should be regarded as pathologic and warrant further investigation.


    2.      A blush-like pattern calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia in a child is typically seen in:

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Raine syndrome

    c.       Krabbe’s disease

    d.      Sturge-Weber  syndrome

    e.       Neurofibromatosis


    Answer: c. Krabbe’s disease is an autosomal recessive demyelinating disorder affecting infants due to galactocerebroside b-galactosidase deficiency leading to accumulation of abnormal lipids. A symmetrical blush-like pattern of calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia is characteristic.


    3.      A 3 day-old boy was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after an episode of tonic-clonic seizure. His mother denied prenatal care. Non-contrast CT was showed both sub-ependymal and periventricular calcifications with cerebral volume loss. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Tuberous sclerosis

    b.      Congenital CMV

    c.       Congenital hypothyroidism

    d.      Neurofibromatois

    e.       Hypoglycemia-induced seizure


    Answer: b. Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Incidence is 0.2-2.4% of live births. Intracranial calcifications are seen in 77% of those with imaging abnormalities typically in the sub-ependymal and periventricular regions of the brain along with brain atrophy.


    4.      Among all the intra-axial brain tumors, which of the following is mostly associated with intracranial calcifications?

    a.       Oligodendroglioma

    b.      Pilocytic astrocytoma

    c.       Dysembryonic neuroectodermal tumors

    d.      Medulloblastoma

    e.       Metastasis


    Answer: a. Oligodendrogliomas exhibit the highest frequency of calcifications (up to 90%). Calcifications can be scattered dots or clumped together to form large nodules, located centrally or peripherally and frequently in the frontal lobes.


    5.      A 50-year-old female patient presented with dry coughfatigue, and shortness of breath. On physical exam she has tender reddish bumps on the skin. Review of the systems revealed seizures and depression. CXR showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes and CT scan of the brain showed small calcified masses in the leptomeninges and periventricular white matter. What is the most likely diagnosis?

    a.       Hypothyroidism

    b.      Hyperparathyroidism

    c.       Hemochromatosis

    d.      Chronic lead toxicity

    e.       Sarcoidosis


    Answer: e. Sarcoidosis affects many organs including the CNS, lungs and skin. On non-contrast CT scan of the brain, small calcified granulomas can be seen in the leptomeninges, periventricular white matter, pons, hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and optic chiasm with varying degrees of edema.


  • Radiology resident India, Rajasthan


  • ANJUNA REGHUNATH Breast Imaging 11/18/2015

    62 year old female with left breast metastatic carcinosis from prior esophagus cancer. Ultrasound of breast (3A) showing a hypoechoic lesion with irregular shape, angulated margins and macrocalcificat...

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  • Sneha Harish C

    2019-09-01 05:20:47 Visible by anyone.

  • Muhammad Shoyab

    2018-08-01 06:29:29 Visible by anyone.
  • Radiologist United Kingdom, United Kingdom


  • Radiologist India, Tamilnadu

    Consultant Radiologist ...

  • Yashesh Shah Nuclear Medicine 02/09/2016

    40-year-old woman presented with labile blood pressure, dyspnea, and chest tightness. Biochemical workup for pheochromocytoma was initiated. Plasma normetanephrines, urine normetanephrines, and chromo...

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  • Filipa Vilaverde Abdominal Imaging 11/01/2015

    ABSTRACT Most cases of pancreatoblastoma, a rare malignant epithelial tumor of the pancreas, are seen in the pediatric population. The rarity of pancreatoblastoma, the similar radiologic findings to ...

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  • Jayden Spencer Nuclear Medicine 06/12/2017

    ABSTRACT A 60-year-old male presented with complaints of dyspnea, intermittent fever, and 40 pounds of weight loss over the previous nine months and was admitted for acute hypoxemic respiratory fai...

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  • New member:

    Ahmed Farouk

    Radiologist Egypt, Cairo


  • New member:

    Holger Spittank

    Non-Radiologist physician Germany,


  • Sehrish Memon Interventional Radiology 11/08/2015

    Abstract Vascular closure devices are frequently used for hemostasis during endovascular procedures by employing sutures, plug devices (using collagen or hydrogel) or through the use of a metal cli...

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  • Laura Gabrieli Pediatric radiology 04/04/2018

    ABSTRACT Hydrothorax is an uncommon but well-recognized complication of pediatric peritoneal dialysis (PD). Experience with pediatric patients on PD who develop hydrothorax is limited and diagnostic ...

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  • New member:

    Roshni. Anand

    Radiology resident Moldova, Karnataka


  • ANJUNA REGHUNATH Breast Imaging 11/19/2015

    A 62 year old female patient presented to us in October 2015 with a painful left breast lump which had grown progressively in size over the past 8 months. She had undergone a surgical resection for a ...

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